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Dialogue Reports & Books

June 11, 2015: Mexico's Energy Reform: Bridging the Skills Gap (PDF)
By Rebecca O'Connor
Firms across Latin America are complaining about the difficulties of recruiting workers with the technical skills their businesses demand. Lack of adequate skills is becoming a bottleneck for growth in technologically complex industries, harming government efforts to increase investment in strategic sectors of the economy. In Mexico, the energy reform creates opportunities to generate new jobs and educate and train workers in specialized skillsets, but the country will also face challenges in meeting additional demand for skilled labor.

June 11, 2015: La reforma energética en México: Cerrando la brecha de habilidades (PDF)
By Rebecca O'Connor
Empresas en toda América Latina se quejan de dificultades en la contratación de trabajadores con las habilidades técnicas que sus negocios demandan. La falta de habilidades adecuadas se está convirtiendo en un obstáculo para el crecimiento en las industrias tecnológicamente complejas, perjudicando los esfuerzos de gobiernos por aumentar la inversión en sectores estratégicos de la economía. En México, la reforma energética crea oportunidades para generar nuevos puestos de trabajo y para educar y formar a trabajadores en habilidades especializadas, pero el país también enfrentará retos en el cumplimiento de una demanda adicional de mano de obra calificada.

June 1, 2015: Latin American Crude Oil Exports: The Battle for Market Share
By Lisa Viscidi and Ramón Espinasa
Facing growing competition for a shrinking US market, Latin American crude oil producers are being forced to seek new export markets. As Asian energy demand continues to grow, crude oil flows from Latin America are increasingly moving east rather than north. However, tapping markets outside of the United States also brings a new set of challenges.

May 21, 2015: Local Conflicts and Natural Resources: A Balancing Act for Latin American Governments
By Lisa Viscidi and Jason Fargo
Conflicts over energy and natural resources are leading to social turmoil and posing serious challenges for investment projects all over Latin America. To better manage such conflicts, Latin American governments must step up their involvement in the consultation process and communicate more effectively with local communities about potential social, environmental and economic impacts, according to a new report by the Inter-American Dialogue.

March 23, 2015: Filling The Gap: How the US Energy Boom is Shaping Refining Markets in Latin America (PDF)
By Lisa Viscidi
The surge in unconventional oil and gas production in North America has dramatically shifted energy markets in the Americas, with important implications for Latin America and the Caribbean. A new report by Lisa Viscidi, Director of the Energy, Climate Change and Extractive Industries Program at the Inter-American Dialogue, examines the factors behind rising oil demand and the growing deficit in refining capacity in Latin America, as well as the geopolitical implications of increasing US oil product exports to the region.

March 23, 2015: Acortando la brecha: Los efectos del auge energético estadounidense sobre el mercado de la refinación en América Latina
By Lisa Viscidi
La revolución generada por la producción masiva de hidrocarburos de esquisto en Estados Unidos marca uno de los vuelcos más drásticos de los últimos tiempos en el sector petrolero mundial. Tras más de veinte años de contracción, entre 2008 y 2014 la producción estadounidense de crudo creció en un 75%, convirtiendo al país en el primer productor mundial. Las repercusiones están a la vista en todo el mundo y especialmente en el continente americano, mercado natural histórico para el comercio de crudo y sus derivados con Estados Unidos. En América Latina y el Caribe, región donde aumentan en paralelo la demanda y el déficit en capacidad de refino, Estados Unidos se ha convertido en el principal proveedor de derivados del petróleo.

February 24, 2015: Abortion and Reproductive Rights in Latin America: Implications for Democracy
By Inter-American Dialogue and Center for Reproductive Rights
Latin American countries have some of the most restrictive reproductive health laws and policies in the world, particularly with regard to abortion. In part this stems from not recognizing reproductive freedom as a fundamental human right. However, imposing legal restrictions on abortion does not reduce the likelihood that women will seek this reproductive health service. Instead, harsh laws compel women to risk their lives and health by seeking out unsafe abortions.

February 2, 2015: The Distributional Impact of Fiscal Policy in South Africa
By Nora Lustig, Gabriela Inchauste, Mashekwa Maboshe, Catriona Purfield, Ingrid Woolard
This paper, published uses the 2010/11 Income and Expenditure Survey for South Africa to analyze the progressivity of the main tax and social spending programs and quantify their impact on poverty and inequality.

January 12, 2015: Chinese Energy Engagement with Latin America: A Review of Recent Findings
By Iacob Koch-Weser
This report offers an extensive review of the English, Chinese, Spanish, and Portuguese literature on Chinese overseas energy sector engagement, highlighting a sub-set of issues especially relevant to policymakers. These include China’s effect on global commodity markets, the country’s outbound investment policies, and the extent to which China has a centralized strategy for overseas energy resource acquisition. The report concludes with timely suggestions for further research on Chinese energy engagement in the Americas.

January 5, 2015: Fiscal Policy and Ethno-Racial Inequality in Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala and Uruguay
By Nora Lustig
African descendants and indigenous peoples in Latin America face higher poverty rates and are disproportionately represented among the poor. Per capita income of the white population can be sixty percent higher to twice as high as the per capita income of the African descendant and indigenous populations.

October 23, 2014: Fiscal Policy, Inequality, and the Ethnic Divide in Guatemala
By Maynor Cabrera, Nora Lustig, and Hilcías Morán
We are pleased to announce the publication of Commitment to Equity working paper no. 20: "Fiscal Policy, Inequality, and the Ethnic Divide in Guatemala." The study of Guatemala is part of the commitment to Equity Project (CEQ), a joint initiative of the Center for Inter-American Policy and the Department of Economics, Tulane University and the Inter-American Dialogue. This study has been partially funded by the Gender and Diversity Division of the Inter-American Development Bank.

October 2, 2014: Navigating Risk in Brazil's Energy Sector: The Chinese Approach
By Margaret Myers and Lisa Viscidi
Highlighting findings from a public meeting on Chinese investment in Brazil’s energy sector, report analyzes critical challenges to investing in Brazil’s oil and gas, electricity generation and transmission sectors from the perspective of Chinese companies and identifies opportunities for cooperation and policy improvement.

September 24, 2014: Chinese Mining Activity in Latin America: A Review of Recent Findings
By Iacob Koch-Weser
This report offers an extensive review of the English, Chinese, Spanish, and Portuguese literature on Chinese overseas mining activity, highlighting a sub-set of issues especially relevant to policymakers. These include China’s effect on global commodity markets, the country’s outbound investment policies, and the much-debated impact of Chinese demand on resource-rich economies. Drawing on media reports and statistical databases, Koch-Weser also analyzes current industry trends, including developments in China’s metals trade, overseas mining activity, and Beijing’s take on environmental regulation. The report concludes with timely suggestions for further research on Chinese mining in the Americas.

August 11, 2014: Understanding Central American Migration: The Crisis of Central American Child Migrants in Context (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco and Julia Yansura
There has been a sharp increase in the number of unaccompanied migrant children from Central America attempting to enter the United States in the past few years. This increase is also seen among adults, though to a lesser degree. As the United States, Mexico, and Central American countries struggle to address this crisis, debates have raged surrounding the humanitarian, legal, and political implications of any possible solution to this complex and troubling issue. This memo aims to inform the current debate by integrating data on issues triggering this outflow while also introducing the perspectives of the people and communities they affect. Specifically, it draws on data from 900 municipalities to analyze migrant hometowns in relation to human development,violence, and education.In addition, it presents the results of a nationwide survey in El Salvador and a survey of Central American migrants residing in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

August 4, 2014: Un futuro más brillante por México: La promesa y los retos de la reforma eléctrica
By Lisa Viscidi and Paul Shortell
Aunque la reforma de petróleo y gas de México ha capturado el centro de atención en México y en el extranjero, la reforma del sector eléctrico es posiblemente más importante para el crecimiento económico del país, el comercio y el presupuesto fiscal. A largo plazo, esta reforma tan importante debería reducir los precios de la electricidad para el sector industrial, reducir las limitaciones presupuestarias y de funcionamiento para la CFE y llevar a México hacia una matriz energética más limpia. Aunque el gobierno ha tomado pasos importantes hacia el establecimiento de un marco de energía correcto, aún queda mucho trabajo por hacer y existen muchos desafíos y dudas que la reforma no podrá resolver a corto plazo.

June 12, 2014: A Brighter Future for Mexico: The Promise and Challenge of Electricity Reform
By Lisa Viscidi and Paul Shortell
While Mexico’s oil and gas reform has stolen the limelight both at home and abroad, the electricity reform is arguably more critical to the country’s economic growth, trade and fiscal budget. High power generation costs, deficient infrastructure, and barriers to competition are leading Mexico on a path toward soaring industrial electricity tariffs and unsustainable energy subsidies. A sweeping overhaul of the country’s framework for the electricity and hydrocarbons sectors should reduce electricity prices. But while the government has taken important steps toward establishing the right energy framework, much work remains to be done -- and the many potential challenges and uncertainties mean that the reform is unlikely to bear fruit in the short term.

June 10, 2014: The State of Brazil's South American Project
By Matias Spektor
The author takes stock of the progress and obstacles in Brazil's attempt to carve out a South American space as its principal geopolitical point of reference.

June 10, 2014: Informe avance SIEPAC y propuesta de medidas
By Genaro Arriagada
El estudio analiza los avances del proyecto Sistema de Interconexión Eléctrica de los Países de América Central (SIEPAC) y enumera los obstáculos que a la fecha impiden su exitosa implementación. El autor aborda los desafíos tanto políticos como económicos que enfrentan los países centroamericanos y proponen un plan de acción que incluye medidas para facilitar la coordinación internacional, fortalecer a las instituciones que encabezan el desarrollo y operación de la matriz eléctrica regional, y crear un marco seguro para el surgimiento de nuevos contratos de largo plazo.

May 27, 2014: What Can Latin America Learn from Rigorous Impact Evaluations of Education Policies? (PDF)
By Richard J. Murnane and Alejandro J. Ganimian
This PREAL Working Paper distills four main lessons for pre K-12 education policy in Latin America from impact evaluations in developing countries throughout the world.

May 27, 2014: ¿Cuáles son las Lecciones de las Evaluaciones de Impacto Rigurosas de Políticas Educativas para América Latina? (PDF)
By Richard J. Murnane y Alejandro J. Ganimian
Este documento de trabajo de PREAL presenta 4 lecciones principales para la política educativa en América Latina a partir de evaluaciones de impacto en países en vías de desarrollo.

May 1, 2014: What Do Great Teachers Do? The Techniques that Separate Great Teachers from Average Teachers (PDF)
By Jeffrey Puryear
We are pleased to share with you the most recent PREAL Policy Brief, “What Do Great Teachers Do? The Techniques that Separate Great Teachers from Average Teachers.” PREAL Policy Briefs provide non-technical overviews of key education policy topics.

April 3, 2014: Economic Status and Remittance Behavior among Latin American and Caribbean Migrants in the Post-Recession Period.
By Manuel Orozco with Mariellen Jewers
Latin American and Caribbean migrants have experienced a modest improvement since the 2008-09 recession. One in three migrants are in a “vulnerable” financial position, a situation that limits their ability to further remit larger amounts. As of 2013 these remittances are similar to 2010 levels. Although more immigrants are saving as compared to 2009, increases in income and full time work are not adequate enough to ensure the means to a robust improvement. Moreover, legal status is one factor affecting their financial strength.

April 3, 2014: Situación económica y envío de remesas de migrantes de América Latina y el Caribe en el periodo post-recesión
By Manuel Orozco con Mariellen Jewers
Este informe analiza la posición financiera actual y el comportamiento del envío de remesas de personas migrantes que viven Estados Unidos dentro del contexto de la crisis económica 2008-2009. El informe se basa en resultados de la encuesta realizada a una muestra de 2.000 migrantes de América Latina y el Caribe que residen en cinco de las principales ciudades de Estados Unidos.

March 7, 2014: Natural Gas in Central America
By Paul Shortell, Kathryn Baragwanath and Carlos Sucre
Central America's energy landscape presents complicated challenges. A recent boom in natural gas production offers an opportunity for the region to reduce its dependence on imported oil and address high and rising energy costs. This paper reviews the status of natural gas projects in Central America and evaluates the challenges of natural gas use in the electricity sector.

February 28, 2014: China, Latin America and the United States: A Troubled Energy Triangle (PDF)
By Genaro Arriagada, Ramón Espinasa and Kathryn Baragwanath
Arriagada and Espinasa analyze the dynamic “energy triangle” constituted by China, the United States and Latin America. The authors evaluate the three principal forms of Sino-Latin interaction in the energy sector. These include: China’s imports of Latin American energy; its foreign direct investment in Western Hemisphere energy resources; and oil-backed loans from Chinese banks to Latin American governments. Arriagada and Espinasa conclude that only first of these is conducted in a way that is satisfactory to both parties, and that many gains from cooperation remain unrealized.

February 28, 2014: China, América Latina, Estados Unidos: energía, un triángulo en dificultades (PDF)
By Genaro Arriagada, Ramón Espinasa and Kathryn Baragwanath
El estudio analiza el dinámico “triángulo energético” constituido por China, Estados Unidos y América Latina. Para los autores, las necesidades complementarias de China y América Latina viabilizan una relación demutuo beneficio, marco en que evalúan tres grandes formas de interacción: la importación desde América Latina, la inversión directa en recursos energéticos del continente y los préstamos con garantía de petróleo a gobiernos latinoamericanos, concluyendo que sólo la primera se hace de forma satisfactoria para ambas partes y que quedan muchos beneficios de la cooperación por materializar.

February 28, 2014: The United States and Central America’s Northern Tier: The Ongoing Disconnect
By Héctor Silva Ávalos
Organized crime, rampant corruption, and large scale violence have stunted the economic and social development of Central America's Northern Triangle since the end of the region's civil wars in the 1990s. Has US aid effectively reversed climbing homicide and crime rates?

February 19, 2014: Calidad y Equidad para el Desarrollo Humano: A Report Card on Education in Nicaragua, 2014 (PDF)
By Policy Monitoring Reports
We are pleased to share the third Report Card on Education in Nicaragua, produced by the Foro Educativo Nicaraguense (EDUQUEMOS) in collaboration with PREAL. The report card analyzes the achievements and challenges of the Nicaraguan education system in ten key areas and offers a series of policy recommendations.

January 15, 2014: Brazil’s Slow and Uncertain Shift from Protectionism to Free Trade
By João Augusto de Castro Neves
Over the last two decades, Brazil’s trade policy has centered on two main negotiations. Progress on both fronts, however, has been limited. This paper by João Augusto de Castro Neves of the Eurasia Group explores the evolution and state of Brazilian trade policy.

January 15, 2014: US-Latin America Trade and Investment in the 21st Century: What’s Next for Deepening Integration?
By J. F. Hornbeck
Since the turn of the millennium, trade and investment between the United States and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have continued to grow and transform—even in the face of global economic volatility and increased competitiveness within the world trading system. This paper presents an overview of US-Latin America trade and investment from 2000 to 2012, with special attention paid to Mexico and Brazil, the two largest LAC economies.

January 15, 2014: Mega-Regional Trade Negotiations: What Is at Stake for Latin America?
By Osvaldo Rosales and Sebastián Herreros
During this decade, and with particular intensity in recent months, several far-reaching trade negotiations have been in the works worldwide. These initiatives should have a deep impact on the global trade and investment architecture of the coming decades. This paper focuses on the impact on Latin America of recent mega trade negotiations such as the TPP and TTIP.

January 6, 2014: Las tendencias mundiales y el futuro de América Latina
By Sergio Bitar
Esta investigación aporta una mirada amplia de cómo el mundo está construyendo su visión de futuro y explora las preguntas centrales junto con los principales dilemas y desafíos. Además, se pone en evidencia la preocupante ausencia de protagonismo del continente latinoamericano y del Caribe en este debate así como la dificultad de encontrar miradas del futuro planetario construidas desde la región, al tiempo que se hace una reflexión sobre su posición actual y futura y se indagan las estrategias para modificarla.

January 1, 2014: Las tendencias mundiales y el futuro de América Latina (PDF)
By Sergio Bitar
Este informe escrito por Sergio Bitar, director del programa Tendencias Globales y el Futuro de América Latina del Diálago Interamericano, describe los principales dilemas y desafíos futuros que enfrentarán los países latinoamericanos.

December 11, 2013: Comparing the Incidence of Taxes and Social Spending in Brazil and the United States
By Sean Higgins, Nora Lustig, Whitney Ruble and Timothy Smeeding
How much do the Western Hemisphere’s two largest economies and most populous countries, Brazil and the United States, redistribute through social spending and taxes? Although the United States has an income per capita four times as large as Brazil’s, the countries share similarities that make this comparison interesting.

November 27, 2013: Why and How Latin America Should Think About the Future
By Sergio Bitar
Over the past decade, many Latin American governments have made significant strides in developing domestic policies that have succeeded in reducing poverty and strengthening democratic institutions. Yet the impact of profound transformations in the global economy, climate change, and new information and communication technologies makes it clear that the region’s future will be inextricably connected to developments taking place beyond the borders of individual nations.

November 22, 2013: Migration and Development in Central America: Perceptions, Policies, and Further Opportunities
By Manuel Orozco and Julia Yansura
Migrants abroad have been a strong source of economic growth for nearly every country in the region. Public officials, however, have been largely unable to develop policies that effectively leverage the economic activities of migrants and harness their full economic potential.

October 14, 2013: China’s Rising Investment Profile in the Caribbean
By Richard L. Bernal
Can China become a major source of FDI for Caribbean nations? Ambassador Richard Bernal discusses China's emerging role as an investor in the region.

September 3, 2013: Asian and Latin American City Competitiveness (PDF)
By Marco Kamiya, CAF - Development Bank of Latin America
This brief, which summarizes initial findings from a Regional Competitive Cities study conducted by CAF and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), compares cluster development and competitiveness in three cities in Asia—Ho Chi Minh, Dhaka and Seoul—and four cities in Latin America—Curitiba, Lima, Bogotá and Guayaquil.

July 22, 2013: Migrant Remittances and Development in the Global Economy
By Manuel Orozco
How do patterns of migration and remittances differ across regions? What kinds of regulatory and institutional frameworks best support the contributions of remittances to local development? What has been the impact of remittances on migrants and their families? Drawing on empirical data from five continents and firmly grounded in theory, Orozco's work reflects the evolution of our understanding about the importance of migrant remittances and the policies that govern them.

July 17, 2013: Shale Gas in Latin America: Opportunities and Challenges
By David R. Mares
Is shale gas a viable new frontier for Latin America’s booming energy sector? Energy Expert David Mares analyzes the political, economic and environmental challenges that countries face in developing the next generation of hydrocarbon resources.

July 15, 2013: Political Reform in Central America: Are Democratic Institutions at Risk?
By Arturo Cruz-Sequeira
In this working paper, Cruz offers a fresh and original assessment of the state of democratic governance in five Central American nations: Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala.

June 12, 2013: Fourteen Lessons for Improving Learning (PDF)
By Jeffrey Puryear and Tamara Ortega Goodspeed
This document is the authors’ attempt to draw lessons from the work of the Partnership for Educational Revitalization in the Americas (PREAL). A project established by the Inter-American Dialogue in Washington, DC, and the Corporation for Development Research (CINDE) in Santiago, Chile, PREAL has worked for nearly two decades to improve educational quality and equity by promoting better education policy.

May 29, 2013: Os Novos Bancos em Cena: Financiamentos chineses na América Latina (PDF)
By Kevin P. Gallagher, Amos Irwin, Katherine Koleski
Este relatório, produto do programa de China e América Latina do Inter-American Dialogue, oferece a primeira síntese abrangente do papel da China como credora na América Latina e no Caribe (ALC). Os autores estimam o volume, composição e características dos empréstimos chineses na região desde 2005, oferecem comparações com outros credores internacionais ocidentais e examinam a sabedoria comum sobre o assunto. O relatório investiga se os empréstimos chineses oferecem termos menos favoráveis, menos condicionalidades políticas e regulações ambientais mais frouxas—em comparação com os empréstimos obtidos com bancos e instituições financeiras internacionais baseadas no Ocidente. Os autores encontram evidência para apoiar algumas destas ideias, mas não outras.

April 24, 2013: Women and the Judiciary in the Americas: Leadership and Outcomes (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue, League of Women Voters, and International Association of Women Judges
We are pleased to present this report on women in judicial leadership in the Americas. In recent decades, women in Latin America and the Caribbean have made tremendous strides towards achieving leadership in every sphere and at the highest levels.

April 24, 2013: La Mujer y el Poder Judicial en las Américas: Liderazgo y Resultados (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue, League of Women Voters, and International Association of Women Judges
Nos complace sobremanera presentar un informe sobre la mujer en cargos de responsabilidad judicial en las Américas, elaborado en el marco de los grandes avances que durante las últimas décadas las mujeres de América Latina y el Caribe vienen concretando en todos los ámbitos y al más alto nivel.

April 23, 2013: The Americas in Motion: Looking Ahead (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
This commemorative volume draws in part on papers prepared for the Dialogue’s 30th Anniversary Sol M. Linowitz Forum. The authors reflect on the dramatic transformations in US-Latin American relations over the past thirty years – since the Dialogue’s first report on the hemispheric policy agenda in 1983 – and, more crucially, they explore what changes should be anticipated over the next three decades. In keeping with the Dialogue’s role and mission, this forward-looking exercise seeks to inform the terms of debate and influence decision-making. Our aim is to stimulate broad and spirited public discussion about where the Western Hemisphere is headed

March 26, 2013: Debating the Prospects for Peace in Colombia (PDF)
By Cameron Combs & Tim Heine
On September 4, 2012, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos announced that his government would begin formal peace negotiations with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) in Oslo, Norway, and Havana, Cuba— sparking hope that the hemisphere’s longest internal armed conflict may finally be coming to a close.

February 6, 2013: A More Ambitious Agenda: A Report of the Inter-American Dialogue’s Commission on Mexico-US Relations (PDF)
By Carla Hills and Ernesto Zedillo
This report of a special Inter-American Dialogue Commission is a call to presidents Obama and Peña Nieto and their administrations to recognize the enhanced opportunities they have to forge cooperative approaches to the multiple challenges their two countries face.

February 6, 2013: Una Agenda Más Ambiciosa: Informe de la Comisión de Diálogo Interamericano sobre relaciones México-Estados Unidos (PDF)
By Carla Hills and Ernesto Zedillo
El informe de esta comisión especial de Diálogo Interamericano es un llamado a los presidentes Obama y Peña Nieto a reconocer la oportunidad que se les presenta de dar un enfoque más colaborativo a los múltiples desafíos que ambas partes enfrentan y a aprovechar los próximos cuatro años para trabajar en busca de soluciones conjuntas.

January 22, 2013: Prisms of Possibility: A Report Card on Education inJamaica 2012 (PDF)
By PREAL / CaPRI
We are pleased to share the first Report Card on Education in Jamaica produced by the Caribbean Policy Research Institute (CaPRI) in collaboration with PREAL. The report card highlights the achievements and challenges of the Jamaican education system in nine key areas, and offers a series of policy recommendations.

January 22, 2013: A Summary of Prisms of Possibility: A Report Card on Education in Jamaica (PDF)
By PREAL / CaPRI

January 22, 2013: In Gratitude: Viron Peter Vaky (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
This commemorative booklet honors the life and work of long-time Dialogue senior fellow Viron Peter Vaky and features tributes from Jimmy Carter, Oscar Arias, Cesar Gaviria, Henry Kissinger, and Madeleine Albright, among others.

January 17, 2013: Latin America’s Role in RMB Internationalization (PDF)
By Jahangir Aziz
The Inter-American Dialogue is pleased to publish this issue brief prepared by Jahangir Aziz, Senior Asia Economist for JP Morgan Chase and former Principal Economic Advisor to India’s Ministry of Finance. Aziz was also previously head of the IMF’s China Division. An expert on Asian models of economic growth, Aziz has written extensively on China’s banking sector reforms and financial sector development. In this paper, the third in a series of economics briefs published by the Inter-American Dialogue’s China and Latin America Program, Aziz examines Latin America’s role in China’s renminbi (RMB) nternationalization process. He foresees low demand among Latin American nations for RMB-denominated transactions in coming years.

January 15, 2013: Organized Crime and Insecurity in Belize (PDF)
By Julie López
In this working paper, López offers an in-depth look at the security landscape in Belize, a country too often ignored in regional policy discussions, but one which faces criminal challenges similar to those of its larger Central American neighbors.

January 4, 2013: Peace Now? Mexican Security Policy after Felipe Calderón (PDF)
By Alejandro Hope
After giving an overview of President Felipe Calderón's security approach, Hope outlines how his successor, Enrique Peña Nieto, will likely proceed within a country whose security has been fundamentally altered over the past six years.

December 7, 2012: Security in Nicaragua: Central America's Exception? (PDF)
By Roberto Cajina
During the past four decades of the twentieth century, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala experienced civil wars that differed in their nature, intensity, and duration. Following peace, criminal violence took hold in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras,— but not in Nicaragua, which has managed to maintain relatively low levels of insecurity in a region that has been cited as “the most violent in the world.” Why? What factors account for this difference? Was the upsurge of criminal violence an unprecedented phenomenon in the Northern Triangle? Have the countries of the Southern Triangle stood apart from such violence? These are some of the questions that this paper seeks to answer.

December 7, 2012: Seguridad en Nicaragua: ¿la excepción en Centroamérica? (PDF)
By Roberto Cajina
En las últimas cuatro décadas del siglo pasado, Nicaragua, El Salvador y Guatemala vivieron guerras civiles de naturaleza, intensidad y duración distintas. Después de la firma de la paz, la violencia delictiva se apoderé de El Salvador y Guatemala, además de Honduras, mas no así de Nicaragua, que ha logrado mantener niveles relativamente bajos de inseguridad en una región que, se asegura, es “la más violenta del mundo”. ¿Por qué? ¿Qué factores marcaron la diferencia? ¿Fue la irrupción de la violencia delictiva un fenómeno inédito en el Triángulo Norte? ¿Han estado los países del Triángulo Sur ajenos a la violencia? ¿Es este fenómeno algo nuevo en los países del istmo? Estas son algunas de las preguntas que este ensayo busca responder.

December 7, 2012: Capitalizing on the China Cycle: Time is Running Out for Latin America (PDF)
By Kevin P. Gallagher
This paper on commodities-related trends in Latin America is the second in a series of economics briefs that will be published by the Inter American Dialogue’s China and Latin America program in coming months. China’s slowing growth, its proposed “economic transformation,” and its commitment to deeper economic integration with Latin America are changing the landscape of Sino-Latin economic engagement. Latin American nations, meanwhile, have adopted strikingly different approaches to managing China’s expanding economic influence in the region. The Dialogue’s China and Latin America economics briefs will address areas of emerging interest at this pivotal moment in China-Latin America economic relations. The first brief in this series, “China’s Free Trade Agreements in South America” by Carol Wise, was published in November.

October 24, 2012: The Market for Money Transfers: Ranking of Remittance Service Providers in Latin America and the Caribbean (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
These results are based on research of nearly 50 remittance service providers working in the US to Latin America and Caribbean corridors. Of these, data was fully collected for 37 of them. These companies hold over 90% of flows to Latin America and the Caribbean.

July 16, 2012: Inter-American Dialogue Working Paper: What is US Drug Policy? (PDF)
By Peter Hakim and Kimberly Covington
There are increasing pressures to rethink and reshape US drug policy. This Inter-American Dialogue Working Paper discusses key elements of current US drug policy, points out their strengths and weaknesses, and highlights where changes would be desirable.

June 20, 2012: Hacia un modelo de Alianzas por el desarrollo con la diáspora y el sector privado: la experiencia en educación (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco, Carola Balbuena
Este informe presenta un análisis sobre el rol de la diáspora y el sector privado en realizar alianzas, en proyectos de desarrollo en el campo educativo. A la vez el informe incluye u modelo de formación de alianzas que pueda fortalecer las experiencias ya existentes y futuras asociaciones. El trabajo introduce un método analítico para realizar la evaluación de diecisiete proyectos que tuvieron lugar tanto en Centroamérica, como en otros países del mundo. Se exploraron proyectos educativos que incluyeron la educación pre-escolar hasta bachillerato y la educación o formación a la fuerza laboral.

June 13, 2012: Maximizing the Development Impact of Remittances (PDF)
By UNCTAD, Manuel Orozco
The present publication seeks to gather main experiences and proposals made by policy makers, delegates,experts, intergovernmental organizations and civil society representatives during the 2011 UNCTAD Single Year Expert meeting on “Maximizing the development impact of remittances”. It is also a tool for consolidating state of the art knowledge on remittances trends, providing new thinking on the role that remittances play in development, and enabling stakeholders in better designing comprehensive policy and institutional frameworks in the intersection between migration, remittances, financial services and labor mobility issues.

May 7, 2012: Future Trends in Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Remittances grew 8 percent from 2010 to 2011, nearly returning to pre-recession, 2007 levels, according to a report just released by the Inter-American Dialogue. Prepared by Dialogue senior associate Manuel Orozco, “Future Trends in Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean” analyzes changes in the frequency and amount of remittances sent by Latin American migrants using available data and surveys Orozco conducted over the past decade.

May 1, 2012: Tendencias Futuras de las Remesas en América Latina y el Caribe (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Las remesas familiares aumentaran 8% entre 2010 y 2011, casi alcanzando niveles previos a la recesión de 2007, según un informe recién publicado por el Diálogo InterAmericano. “Futuras Tendencias en Remesas a Latinoamérica y el Caribe,” por Manuel Orozco, asociado principal en el Diálogo, analiza cambios en la frecuencia y la cantidad de envíos de dinero usando datos y encuestas de los últimos diez anos.

May 1, 2012: The United States, Latin America and China: A "Triangular Relationship"? (PDF)
By Evan Ellis
This paper, a product of the Dialogue's China and Latin America program, critically analyzes the notion of a "triangular relationship" involving the United States, China and Latin America. The "triangle" construct has been popular in policy-related and academic literature over the past few years. While the concept of a US-China-Latin America triangle is useful when highlighting interdependencies and identifying opportunities for bilateral and "poli-lateral" cooperation, Ellis argues that it is based on dubious assumptions about dynamics affecting the three actors. It assumes, for example, that Latin America is a unitary actor. It also downplays the role of other actors -- India, Russia, and Europe, for example -- that have significant relations with the United States, China, and Latin America.

April 11, 2012: Remaking the Relationship: The United States and Latin America (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
The United States and Latin America, after a decade of profound change, are increasingly going their separate ways. Without a rethinking of the relationship and resolution of three stubborn, long-standing problems—immigration, Cuba, and drug policy—the drift and distancing are likely to continue, potentially producing new tensions and risks for hemispheric affairs. The report also points to several critical opportunities that would lead to more productive cooperation and help establish the necessary basis for sustained partnership between the United States and Latin America.

April 9, 2012: Countering Criminal Violence in Central America (PDF)
By Michael Shifter
This report, published by the Council on Foreign Relations' Center for Preventive Action, explores the causes and consequences of the violence faced by Central American countries and examines the national, regional, and international efforts aimed at reducing its worst effects. It identifies US interests involved in the deteriorating situation and offers policymakers a set of key recommendations to enhance regional cooperation and be more effective in tackling shared security challenges.

March 1, 2012: Is Latin America Ready for the Next Decade (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
The region is weathering the global economic crisis well,but as the recession deepens and spreads throughout the world, the future remains uncertain. Although the United States is still the region’s most important investment partner, the Obama administration is missing the opportunity to forge effective collaboration on issues ranging from climate change to immigration. And important gains, including the reduction of poverty in South America, remain precarious.

February 17, 2012: The Security Situation in Latin America (PDF)
By Gino Costa
Several indicators are used to measure insecurity, violence and crime. In assessing the status of citizen security in Latin America, this study briefly presents and discusses some of them—namely, homicide, which indicates levels of violence; victimization, which is an expression of the intensity of crimes against property; perceptions of insecurity, which refer to the level of fear in the face of criminal activities; confidence in the police agencies responsible for preventing and investigating crime; and the state of the prison system.

February 17, 2012: La situación de la seguridad ciudadana en América Latina (PDF)
By Gino Costa
Existen múltiples indicadores para medir la inseguridad, la violencia y el delito. Para conocer el estado de la seguridad ciudadana en América Latina se presentan y discuten brevemente algunos de ellos, a saber, los homicidios, que dan cuenta de los niveles de violencia; la victimización, que expresa la intensidad con que se presentan los delitos patrimoniales; la percepción de inseguridad, que refiere los grados de temor frente a la ocurrencia de hechos delictivos; la confianza en las instituciones policiales encargadas de prevenir e investigar los delitos; y, la situación del sistema penitenciario.

February 16, 2012: The New Banks in Town: Chinese Finance in Latin America
By Kevin Gallagher, Amos Irwin, and Katherine Koleski
In their Inter-American Dialogue report, “The New Banks in Town: Chinese Finance in Latin America,” Kevin Gallagher, Amos Irwin, and Katherine Koleski offer the first comprehensive summary of China’s lending practices in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The authors provide estimates of the volume, composition, and characteristics of Chinese lending to the region since 2005, offer comparisons to international and Western lending institutions, and examine some commonly held notions about Chinese loans to LAC. These include claims that China’s loans have less favorable terms than those of international financial institutions (IFIs) and Western banks, that Chinese lending carries few policy conditions, and that Chinese lenders impose less stringent environmental guidelines than their Western counterparts. The report lends credence to some of these claims, but less so to others.

February 15, 2012: The New Banks in Town: Chinese Finance in Latin America (Abstract) (PDF)
By Kevin Gallagher, Amos Irwin, Katherine Koleski
This report, a product of the Dialogue's China and Latin America program, offers the first comprehensive summary of China's lending practices in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The authors provide estimates of the volume, composition, and characteristics of Chinese lending to the region since 2005, offer comparisons to international and Western lending institutions, and examine some commonly held notions about Chinese loans to LAC. These include claims that China's loans have less favorable terms than those of international financial institutions (IFIs) and Western banks, that Chinese lending carries few policy conditions, and that Chinese lenders impose less stringent environmental guidelines than their Western counterparts. The report lends credence to some of these claims, but less so to others.

November 9, 2011: Digital Technologies: A Path to Improved Education and Health in Remote Communities
By Peter Hakim with Mariellen Jewers
As the use of personal computers became common, and education and health care seemed increasingly dependent on digital technologies, escalating alarms were heard about the prospect of a “digital divide.” The divide, it was feared, would compound existing technological backwardness and leave poorer countries, communities, and families further and further behind.

November 9, 2011: El reto es la calidad (PDF)
By Policy Monitoring Reports
Tras la publicación el año 2006 del primer Informe de Progreso Educativo de República Dominicana, una nueva versión, correspondiente a 2010 y titulada “El reto es la calidad”, pretende medir los cambios que han acontecido desde entonces. Este documento destaca que el país ha avanzado significativamente en la cobertura de la educación básica, pero la calidad de la educación sigue siendo su gran desafío.

November 9, 2011: Las tecnologías digitales: Un camino hacia una mejor educación y salud en las comunidades remotas
By Peter Hakim con Mariellen Jewers
A medida que el uso de los computadores personales se generaliza y la educación y la salud se vuelven cada vez más dependientes de las tecnologías digitales, se han escuchado crecientes advertencias acerca de la posibilidad de que se genere una “divisoria digital”. Se temía que la divisoria aumentara las brechas tecnológicas ya existentes, dejando a los países, las comunidades y las familias más pobres cada vez más atrás.

October 1, 2011: Poverty, Inequality and the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America and the Caribbean
By Nora Lustig
Evidence shows that poverty and inequality have dropped sharply in most of Latin America and the Caribbean in the past decade. Progress, however, is not uniform across the region, which remains impoverished and unequal with many education and health deficiencies. This paper will highlight progress and specific challenges in making progress toward the Millennium Development Goals, and recommend action to reduce poverty and inequality and promote education and health.

September 24, 2011: Pobreza, desigualdad y Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio en América Latina y el Caribe
By Nora Lustig
Tal como lo demuestran una serie de documentos oficiales y publicaciones académicas recientes, la región en su conjunto ha experimentado una reducción significativa de la indigencia, la pobreza y la desigualdad en la distribución del ingreso durante la década pasada. Asimismo, ha habido indudable progreso en materia de acceso a educación, salud e infraestructura básica así como en los indicadores de nutrición y salud. La región en su conjunto avanza a ritmo adecuado para el cumplimiento de un buen número de las metas planteadas en los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio.Sin embargo, amén de que el grado de progreso es heterogéneo y hay países claramente rezagados donde las metas probablemente no se cumplan. En este documento no se intentará hacer un análisis exhaustivo de todo lo pendiente en la agenda social sino de poner énfasis en algunos aspectos que requieren particular atención.

September 23, 2011: El manejo de los desastres naturales
By Lucy Conger, con el aporte de investigaciones realizadas por Cory Siskind
Al igual que otras regiones en desarrollo, la región de América Latina y el Caribe es extremadamente vulnerable a los desastres naturales. Durante las tres décadas transcurridas entre 1980 y 2010, un promedio anual de alrededor de 4 millones de personas fueron víctimas de desastres naturales en América Latina. Algunas perdieron la vida y otras sufrieron lesiones, daños a la propiedad y pérdida de ingresos y empleos. El año 2010 fue un año particularmente destructivo. Las tres cuartas partes de las muertes relacionadas con desastres naturales ocurridas en el mundo se registraron en la región, en gran medida debido al terremoto de Haití, que dejó un saldo de alrededor de 230.000 víctimas fatales. Sólo unos pocos meses más tarde, el terremoto que afectó a Chile, el desastre natural más costoso del mundo ese año, produjo pérdidas estimadas en US$30 mil millones.

September 23, 2011: Managing Natural Disasters
By Lucy Conger, with research assistance from Cory Siskind
Like other developing regions, Latin America and the Caribbean is extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. In the three decades between 1980 and 2010, some 4 million people a year in Latin America, on average, were disaster victims. Some lost their lives. Others endured injuries, property damage, and loss of income and jobs. 2010 was a particularly destructive year. The region suffered three-quarters of all disaster-related deaths worldwide, largely due to the Haitian earthquake, with its toll of some 230,000 lives. Only a few months later, the Chilean earthquake, the world’s costliest natural hazard that year, produced an estimated $30 billion in losses. As climate change accelerates, the frequency and intensity of natural disasters are likely to escalate further worldwide. The scientific evidence suggests that Latin America and the Caribbean will experience an increasing number of major disasters in the coming years.

September 23, 2011: Constructing Citizen Security in the Americas
By Peter Hakim with Kim Covington
Public security is today the issue that most troubles the citizens of nearly every country of Latin America and the Caribbean. According to survey data, some 27 percent of the region’s population identified crime as the most important problem confronting their country in 2010—more than any other issue, including the economy and unemployment, which had long been the dominant concerns. Crime and public safety was the top issue in 11 of the 18 countries polled.

September 23, 2011: Construyendo la Seguridad Ciudadana en las Américas
By Peter Hakim con Kim Covington
La seguridad pública es el problema que más preocupa actualmente a los ciudadanos de casi todos los países de América Latina y el Caribe. De acuerdo a los datos obtenidos mediante de estudios de opinión, alrededor del 27% de la población de la región identificó la delincuencia como el mayor problema que debió enfrentar su país en 2010, por sobre cualquier otro problema, incluyendo la economía y el desempleo, que por largo tiempo fueron las preocupaciones dominantes. La delincuencia y la seguridad pública fueron identificadas como el principal problema en 11 de los 18 países encuestados.

September 7, 2011: A Decade of Change: Political, Economic, and Social Developments in Western Hemisphere Affairs (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
The purpose of this volume is to take stock of the evolution of some of the most salient political, economic, and social developments in recent years. All of the essays review progress that has been made over the course of a single decade—in most cases, from 1998 to 2008. They provide essential background and are highly germane to the fundamental challenges and opportunities facing the Western Hemisphere in the second decade of the twenty-first century.

August 4, 2011: Measuring Up? (PDF)
By Alejandro J. Ganimian and Alexandra Solano Rocha
This document presents a brief analysis of how Latin America and the Caribbean countries performed on the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)–an achievement test administered by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) every three years since 2000 that assesses what 15-year-olds know and can do in reading, math and science.

August 4, 2011: ¿Estan al nivel? (PDF)
By Alejandro J. Ganimian y Alexandra Solano Rocha
Este documento presenta un breve análisis del desempeño de América Latina y el Caribe en el Programa de Evaluación de Estudiantes (PISA) del 2009–una prueba global de rendimiento estudiantil administrada por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE) cada tres años desde el 2000 que evalúa las habilidades de los jóvenes de 15 años en lectura, matemática y ciencias.

June 1, 2011: IV FORUM EUROPA – AMÉRICA LATINA – EE UU/CANADÁ (PDF)
By Áurea Moltó
América Latina aparece hoy como una región vencedora en el cambio de contexto internacional que la crisis financiera ha acelerado. Si bien cada país tiene una específica realidad política y económica, lo cierto es que la transformación en marcha en las estructuras del gobierno económico mundial y, de forma destacada, el impacto de China revalorizan la posición latinoamericana en el nuevo orden. Esto ha sido posible fundamentalmente por tres razones: la estabilidad democrática y macroeconómica en la mayor parte de los países del área; la alta demanda china de materias primas agrícolas, minerales y energéticas; y la participación latinoamericana en grupos como el G-20 y otros esquemas multilaterales de proyección de poder, como el grupo BRIC.

May 5, 2011: Energy Challenges in the Americas (PDF)
By Dialogue Energy Policy Group
This issue of the annual Florida International University Hemisphere Journal was guest edited by Peter Hakim and Genaro Arriagada and features contributions from non-resident senior fellow Genaro Arriagada, visiting fellow Paul Isbell, former staff member Chris Cote, and members of the Energy Policy Group.

March 31, 2011: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Honduras 2010 (PDF)
By Policy Monitoring Reports
El informe nacional es el tercero producido por PREAL y sus contraparte hondureña, FEREMA. Evalúa el estado y progreso del sistema educativo durante los años 2006 a 2010, usando los mejores datos disponibles.

February 25, 2011: Obama’s Visit to Latin America: A View from the South (PDF)
By Sergio Bitar
Prompted by President Obama’s planned March 2011 visit to Latin America, we are pleased to offer these reflections prepared by Sergio Bitar. A long-time member and currently visiting senior fellow of the Inter-American Dialogue, Bitar served as senator as well as minister of energy and mines, education, and public works in three separate administrations in Chile. His sophisticated and wide-ranging perspective about the present moment and opportunity for relations between the United States and Latin America merits public dissemination and spirited discussion.

February 25, 2011: La Visita de Obama a América Latina: Una Mirada desde el Sur (PDF)
By Sergio Bitar
Motivados por la gira que el Presidente Obama proyecta realizar a América Latina en marzo próximo, nos complace ofrecer las reflexiones de Sergio Bitar al respecto. Miembro de larga data y actual investigador principal visitante del Diálogo Interamericano, el ex-senador Bitar ha sido además titular de las carteras de minería, educación y obras públicas en tres distintos gobiernos chilenos. Su penetrante y lúcido enfoque sobre las oportunidades y momento actual por el que pasan las relaciones entre Estados Unidos y América Latina amerita su difusión pública y un debate vigoroso.

February 1, 2011: Rethinking US Drug Policy (PDF)
By Peter Hakim
To encourage debate on the shared drug problem and the search for alternative approaches, the Inter-American Dialogue launched its drug policy project in 2009. This report is one of the critical products of that initiative. It offers six proposals to set the stage for a thorough rethinking of the US and global approach toward illicit drugs.

January 1, 2011: Rising Confidence in Latin America (PDF)
By Mary Dempsey
Report of the Fourteenth Annual CAF Conference on September 8-9, 2010, in Washington, DC.

December 9, 2010: ¿Cambio educativo o educación por el cambio?: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Ecuador 2010 (PDF)
By Policy Monitoring Reports
El informe nacional es el segundo producido por PREAL y sus contrapartes ecuatorianas, Fundación Ecuador y Grupo Faro. Evalúa el estado y progreso del sistema educativo durante los años 2006 a 2010, usando los mejores datos disponibles.

November 30, 2010: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Perú 2010 (PDF)
By PREAL / GRADE
El informe nacional de progreso educativo es el tercero producido por PREAL y su contraparte peruana, el Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE), y evalúa el estado y progreso del sistema educativo de Peru, usando los mejores datos disponibles.

September 30, 2010: Is there a match among migrants, remittances, and technology? (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco, with Elisabeth Burgess, and Netta Ascoli
This report analyzes the effects of technological innovation in the remittance marketplace. Focusing on migrant's ability and willingness to adopt new technology, and the supply of technology-based applications, the report finds much room for increased efficiencies in the marketplace.

September 1, 2010: Re-Election in the Andes: Politics and Prospects (PDF)
By Michael Penfold
This working paper, written by Michael Penfold, is the nineteenth in a special series focused on the Andean countries of South America. The paper examines the debate over incumbent re-election and removal of term limits in the Andean region. Specifically, Penfold seeks to reconcile the tasks of implementing far-reaching social and political change through maintaining power with the risks that consecutive re-election can pose to democratic governance.

August 31, 2010: La apuesta de invertir para una mejor educación: Evaluando la Ley de Financiamiento Educativo en la Argentina, 2006-2010 (PDF)
By PREAL / CIPPEC
Esta auditoría de política es el producto de una asociación entre PREAL y el Centro de Políticas Públicas para la Equidad y el Crecimiento (CIPPEC), y analiza la Ley de Financiamiento Educativo (26.075) promulgada en Argentina el año 2005. A través de la serie Auditorías de Política Educativa, se evalúan políticas nacionales en cinco dimensiones: legislación, implementación, resultados, financiamiento y transparencia.

August 5, 2010: Overcoming Inertia?: A Report Card on Education in Brazil, 2009 (PDF)
By Policy Monitoring Reports
The report analyzes the current state of education in Brazil in terms of coverage, quality, and equity. English and Portuguese.

July 30, 2010: III Foro Europa-América Latina- EE UU
By Áurea Moltó
Con el objetivo de analizar la situación de la democracia, la evolución económica y social en el contexto de la crisis financiera y evaluar la política latinoamericana de Barack Obama en su primer año, ex presidentes latinoamericanos, altos funcionarios, analistas y expertos del continente americano y de Europa se reunieron en el III Foro América Latina-Europa-Estados Unidos celebrado el 21 de abril en Madrid.

June 17, 2010: Un ranking para el Mercado de Remesas de España: Tendencias de la Competencia en América Latina y el Caribe (PDF)
By Elisabeth Burgess, Landen Romei y Manuel Orozco
Este trabajo presenta los resultados de investigación de campo a 15 empresas remesadoras que operan desde España a seis países de América Latina y el Caribe.

June 14, 2010: Declining Inequality in Latin America: A Decade of Progress? (PDF)
By Nora Lustig and Luis F. López-Calva (Eds)
Latin America is always singled out because of its high and persistent income inequality. However, after a period of rising inequality, towards the end of the 1990s Latin America’s concentration of income began to fall. Of the seventeen countries for which comparable data is available, twelve experienced a decline since 2000 in particular. Through in-depth analyses of Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru, this book is among the first attempts to understand why inequality has fallen in Latin America since 2000.

May 25, 2010: Second Meeting of the Working Group on Democratic Governance
By Inter-American Dialogue
The Working Group on Democratic Governance—jointly sponsored by Inter-American Dialogue, the Organization of American States, and International IDEA—convened for a second time in Washington on May 24 and 25, 2010 to discuss threats to democratic governance in Latin America and the Caribbean. Particular attention was paid to the rule of law and the Inter-American Democratic Charter.

May 6, 2010: Remittances and development: financial literacy in an international perspective (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco, Elisabeth Burgess, Nancy Castillo and Landen Romei
This draft paper presents an analysis and the results of fieldwork in the area of financial education as a tool to convert remittance clients into bank clients.

April 30, 2010: Skilled Diasporas: an imagined or real community? (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco and Mariellen Jewers
This paper provides a roadmap to understand the issues that shape what is referred to as skilled diasporas and their practices with development. The analysis problematizes the idea of the skilled diasporas as agents of knowledge transfer and offers practical policy strategies to link these groups to possible knowledge transfer mechanisms as development tool. We argue that these skilled diasporas or migrant transnational communities are relatively small groups, constituting less than 20% of a migrant population whose skills may not be necessarily in correspondence with the development needs of home countries. To that effect, practical policy considerations are important to keep in place.

March 22, 2010: Saindo da Inércia?: Boletim da Educação no Brasil, 2009 (PDF)
By Policy Monitoring Reports
El informe nacional de progreso educativo es el primero producido por PREAL y su contraparte brasileña, la Fundación Lemann, y evalúa el estado y progreso del sistema educativo de Brasil, usando los mejores datos disponibles.

March 20, 2010: Migration, remittances and assets in Bangladesh: Considerations about their intersection and development policy recommendations (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
This report presents an analysis of the results of a survey conducted on more than 10,000 households in Bangladesh. The study shows relevant information that can enhance the conditions of people who migrate and search for greater opportunities to achieve development.

March 3, 2010: Violence and Impunity: Protecting Journalists in Colombia and Mexico (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
In 2008 the Dialogue convened two private conferences, one in Colombia and one in Mexico, designed to develop a greater sense of urgency about crimes against journalists; strengthen communication between the media and government officials charged with defending journalists; and devise a set of recommendations regarding the investigation and prosecution of violence against journalists. This report is the product of those two meetings.

January 21, 2010: First Meeting of the Working Group on Democratic Governance
By Daphne Morrison
The Working Group on Democratic Governance—jointly sponsored by the Inter-American Dialogue, the Organization of American States and International IDEA—met for the first time at the Dialogue in Washington on January 21, 2010. Participants included leading policy analysts from a dozen countries of Latin America, and from the United States and Spain. Discussions were led by José Miguel Insulza and Genaro Arriagada.

December 1, 2009: ¿Cuánto están aprendiendo los niños en América Latina? Datos destacados del Segundo Estudio Regional Comparativo y Explicativo (SERCE) (PDF)
By PREAL (Alejandro Ganimian)
El documento resume los resultados principales del SERCE, el estudio de UNESCO que evaluó el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes en el tercer y sexto grados en matemáticas, lectura y ciencias en 16 países de América Latina. Compara los países participantes en términos del rendimiento promedio; estudiantes con alto y bajo rendimiento; y diferencias en su rendimiento por sexo, zona de residencia, y PIB per capita.

September 1, 2009: PREAL Working Paper No. 43: Teacher Effectiveness (PDF)
By PREAL (Barbara Hunt)
The working paper discusses the state of the teaching profession, examines different approaches to defining and measuring teacher effectiveness, and reviews findings on how to improve it.

September 1, 2009: How Much Are Latin American Children Learning?: Highlights from the Second Regional Student Achievement Test (SERCE) (PDF)
By PREAL (Alejandro Ganimian)
The document summarizes the principal findings of SERCE, the UNESCO study that evaluated the skills of third and sixth graders in math, reading and science in 16 Latin American countries. It compares the participating countries in terms of average scores; high and low achieving students; and differences in performance by gender, place of residence and GDP per capita.

September 1, 2009: Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of the Twelfth Annual Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) Conference on September 10-11 2008.

August 10, 2009: Understanding the continuing effect of the economic crisis on remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
This report presents fieldwork research and results of a nationwide survey of Latin American and Caribbean migrants on how the economic crisis is affecting their economic situation and their ability to send remittances. The study shows that difficulties are mounting for migrants who send money home to take care of their families, and it estimates that in 2009 flows to Latin America may drop by 11% over 2008 values.

July 31, 2009: La Economía Local y las Respuestas de los Gobiernos Ante los Envíos de Remesas en América Latina y el Caribe (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
El presente informe evalúa la intersección entre las remesas y las economías locales en cinco ciudades de América Latina y el Caribe. Examinamos la medida en que estas economías realmente absorben las remesas en su base productiva y las respuestas de los gobiernos locales a estas realidades.

July 31, 2009: Remittances in Latin America and the Caribbean: Their Impact on Local Economies and the Response of Local Governments (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
This report assesses the intersection of remittances with the local economies of five cities in Latin America and the Caribbean. We explore the extent to which these economies effectively absorb remittances into their productive base and the response of the local governments to these realities. Th e global is local: remittances go to a myriad of places outside capitals and large cities.

July 17, 2009: Corruption in the Andean Region: Is Progress Being Made? (PDF)
By Carlos Basombrío Iglesias
This working paper, written by Carlos Basombrío, is the eighteenth in a special series focused on the Andean countries of South America. The paper examines the debate over corruption in the Andes and uses examples from all five Andean countries to assess corruption's effect on political stability and democratic viability.

July 16, 2009: VIDEO: José Miguel Insulza on Honduras
By Chris Moore
Video of a panel conversation featuring Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS) José Miguel Insulza and The Dialogue’s Peter Hakim. The two discussed the political crisis in Honduras, paying special attention to the role of the OAS in the events that transpired over the past several weeks.

July 16, 2009: VIDEO: Q&A Session with José Miguel Insulza
By Chris Moore
Following José Miguel Insulza's presentation to the Dialogue on July 16, 2009, he fielded questions from the audience for close to 45 minutes.

July 13, 2009: VIDEO: Coverage of the Conflict in Honduras
By Chris Moore
The Inter-American Dialogue produced a video on coverage of the current conflict in Honduras.

May 26, 2009: VIDEO: Drugs and Violence: Part One of a Series on Mexico
By Chris Moore
The Inter-American Dialogue is pleased to release a recently-produced video on issues related to drugs and violence in Mexico. The video features commentary from Lázaro Cárdenas and Michael Shifter. It is the first in a series of videos to be released on Mexico.

May 13, 2009: Mexico: A safe vessel or a risky wreck in turbulent waters? (PDF)
By Claudio Loser
Mexico: A safe vessel or a risky wreck in turbulent waters? (May 2009) examines Mexico’s economic conditions with emphasis on its financial system and corporate sector. The report aims to raise questions on Mexican corporates’ ability to refinance themselves in the international marketplace and the related issue of the credit ratings agencies’ accuracy to price in Mexico’s sovereign and corporate risk.

May 11, 2009: Examining Recent Changes in US Policy Towards Cuba
By Chris Moore
A new video on Cuba.

May 8, 2009: Recesión global migraciones y remesas efectos sobre las economías de américa latina y el caribe (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Este estudio por el Diálogo Interamericano muestra que en 2009 inmigrantes de América Latina y el Caribe remitirán US$64 millones, menor de los US$69 millones remitidos en 2008. Además, el estudio muestra que en 2009, mientras la crisis se empeora, inmigrantes reducirán sus flujos por hasta 7 por ciento debido a la pérdida del trabajo, ganancias menores y migración más lenta (incluyendo deportaciones continuadas). Este decenso es mucho menos dañino que lo esperado de las exportaciones, pero no es insignificante. El estudio se basa en un analisis del impacto de la crisis económica en las remesas familiares y el efecto consecuente que tal impacto tendrá en la economía latinoamericana.

May 8, 2009: Migration and Remittances in Times of Recession: Effects on Latin American Economies (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
This study by the Inter-American Dialogue shows that in 2009 immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean will remit US$64 billion, down from US$69 billion in 2008. Moreover, the study shows that in 2009, as the crisis worsens, migrants will reduce their flows by as much as 7 percent due to job losses, lower earnings, and slower migration (including continued deportations). This decline is far less damaging than that expected from exports, yet not negligible. The study is based on an analysis of the impact of the economic downturn on family remittances and the subsequent effect that such an impact is expected to have on the Latin American economies.

May 7, 2009: Asegurando futuros: el interés de inversión y estrategia de comercialización para los salvadoreños en el exterior (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Este documento es el resultado de un estudio sobre el mercado salvadoreño de inversión. En particular saca a relucir el interés en invertir de más del veinte por ciento de la comunidad migrante salvadoreña, con una preferencia hacia la inversión en vivienda personal y familiar. El informe introduce además una estrategia que promueve la comercialización de préstamos para la vivienda.

May 1, 2009: L’Éducation en Haïti: La Voie du Progrès (PDF)
By PREAL (Laurence Wolff)
Le rapport récent de l’Dialogue Interaméricain/PREAL sur les défis auxquels Haïti est confrontée dans le domaine de l’éducation. Ce rapport défend l’idée selon laquelle les pauvres en Haïti ne pourront progresser sans des améliorations majeures dans l’enseignement. À un moment où les haïtiens et la communauté des bailleurs internationaux travaillent pour offrir des solutions durables allant au delà de la construction et la réparation des écoles, le rapport encourage le gouvernement et les bailleurs à développer un système alliant les secteurs public et privé et à le faire fonctionner au bénéfice des pauvres en Haïti. Il recommande comme premières priorités de mettre l’accent sur l’établissement de normes, de travailler avec le secteur privé tout en le réglementant et de responsabiliser toutes les écoles par rapport à leurs résultats.

May 1, 2009: La República Dominicana: Una democracia para vivir mejor (PDF)
By Pedro Wilfredo Lozano
La República Dominicana: Una democracia para vivir mejor relata el encuentro celebrado en la Antigua, del 5 al 7 de octubre de 2007, el segundodel proyecto, Diálogos nacionales sobre la democracia en América Latina, patrocinado por el Diálogo Interamericano y la Organización de los Estados Americanos.

May 1, 2009: Web Anthology on Migrant Remittances and Development: Research Perspectives
By Social Science Research Council
This anthology is an experiment in publication. By agreement with the authors and original publishers, the articles provided for free downloading here will be available for one year, until March 2010. At that time we will reassess whether the anthology should and can be continued and, if so, in what form. Most publishers have allowed free access to their publications; some have charged a fee or imposed other restrictions; others have refused to permit open access to their publications on a “third party” website, even for a fee. Readers of this anthology are encouraged to download the articles provided for personal and educational use.

April 17, 2009: From the G20 to the Summit of the Americas
By Chris Moore
The Inter-American Dialogue produced a video on the transition from the G20 Meeting in London to the Summit of the Americas.

April 1, 2009: The Obama Administration and the Americas: Agenda for Change (PDF)
By Brookings Institution
Several of the Inter-American Dialogue’s staff and members contributed to a new Brookings Institution volume, The Obama Administration and the Americas: Agenda for Change, featuring recommendations for how the Obama administration should approach several key countries in the hemisphere.

March 23, 2009: A Second Chance: U.S. Policy in the Americas (video)
By Chris Moore
The Inter-American Dialogue produced a video on the report "A Second Chance: U.S. Policy in the Americas," and its recommendations for a new U.S. policy agenda in the Americas.

March 10, 2009: A Second Chance: U.S. Policy in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
The Inter-American Dialogue’s 2009 policy report offers the Obama administration a ten-point agenda for the Western Hemisphere and emphasizes that, in the coming period, the highest priority challenge for the United States and every other country in the Americas will be the slumping world economy and its social and political fallout.

March 5, 2009: The Cuban Condition: Migration, Remittances, and its Diaspora (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
As in many other developing countries, migration has become a key component of the Cuban economy. This brief paper presents the results of two random surveys conducted on Cubans in the United States and in Cuba about migration, remittances and ownership of financial assets. The findings are also compared with a previous survey conducted in 2005 and point to a trend of change and continuity.

March 5, 2009: The Cuban Condition: Migration and Remittances (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Presentation from survey release and discussion on remittances to Cuba. Presented on March 5, 2009 at the Inter-American Dialogue, Washington, DC.

March 1, 2009: The Paradox of the 'Good' Student: Race and the Brazilian Education System (PDF)
By PREAL (Marcelo Paixão)
This special report by PREAL aims to promote consideration of the racial inequalities inherent in the educational indicators for the Brazilian population. The pronounced asymmetries experienced by different racial groups in terms of their access to and persistence in the Brazilian education system are already well recognized. This report focuses on the premise that educational indicators for whites and blacks are notably and consistently different, overwhelmingly favoring the former group.

March 1, 2009: Efectividad del desempeño docente. Una reseña de la literatura internacional y su relevancia para mejorar la educación en América Latina. (PDF)
By PREAL (Barbara Hunt)
El documento contiene una reseña de la literatura internacional reciente sobre los temas relacionados con la efectividad docente. La primera sección presenta una definición operativa de la “efectividad docente”. Sigue un panorama general de las necesidades educativas, de la situación de los docentes y de su formación en los países latinoamericanos. La tercera sección destaca distintos abordajes para definir y medir la efectividad docente, mientras que la cuarta reseña lo que dice la literatura sobre cómo mejorar la efectividad docente. La quinta sección lleva al contexto latinoamericano los hallazgos de la literatura internacional en estas materias. El documento concluye con una propuesta de definición de efectividad docente.

February 21, 2009: Emerging markets for Rwanda: remittance transfers, its marketplace and financial intermediation (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
This report presents the results of fieldwork analysis on patterns of remittance transfers to Rwanda. The preliminary findings show significant uncertainty about the inflow of money coming into the country from migrants to their families because of relatively limited statistical information, few if none estimates or studies on remittances and diffusiveness of the status of Rwandans abroad. However, using preliminary estimates accompanied by Central Bank data as well as private sector statistics on remittance flows we identify that the volume may be as high as US$200 million in 2008.

February 1, 2009: Media and Governance: A Reform Agenda in Latin America and the Caribbean (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
In January 2008, the Inter-American Dialogue organized an intensive, full-day workshop to review a set of challenges facing the media in Latin America and the Caribbean and to begin to think about ways to enable the press to be a more positive force for democracy in the region. The conference was specifi cally concerned with four issues: government laws and regulations regarding the media, concentration of media ownership, indirect censorship, and the nexus of media responsibility and the quality of democracy.

January 1, 2009: Educación, un desafío de urgencia nacional: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Guatemala 2008 (PDF)
By PREAL / CIEN
El informe nacional es el segundo producido por PREAL y su contraparte guatemalteca, el Centro de Investigaciones Económicas Nacionales (CIEN), y evalúa el estado y progreso del sistema educativo durante los años 2000 a 2006, usando los mejores datos disponibles.

December 12, 2008: Las tendencias de las remesas familiares y significado para República Dominicana ante los cambios en la economía mundial (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Presentación en powerpoint del evento en FUNGLODE el 12 de diciembre 2008.

December 12, 2008: Migración y Remesas en República Dominicana: Sinopsis de los resultados de la última encuesta sobre remesas y migración realizada en Septiembre 2008 (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Presentación en powerpoint de la encuesta.

December 12, 2008: Remesas, Migración y Banca en República Dominicana: Encuesta Nacional y Resultados Generales (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Presentación en powerpoint de la encuesta.

December 1, 2008: Access to Information in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Since December 2002, the Inter-American Dialogue has organized a series of regional and sub-regional meetings on access to information in Latin America and the Caribbean. The goals have been to advance legislation guaranteeing access to information, share information among advocates and practitioners, and support region-wide efforts to influence Organization of American States (OAS) resolutions on the issue.

November 20, 2008: Tasting Identity: Trends in Migrant Demand for Home-Country Goods, Micronote (PDF)
By USAID
This report is a study on the demand for nostalgic goods and the ways in which local ethnic stores support that demand. The study is the first of its kind and is based on a nationwide survey of 1300 individuals from twelve nationalities and interviews with nearly fifty ethnic stores supplying home country goods to migrant populations. The results of the study show that migrants manifest a solid demand that looks for quality and product selection, and relies on a network of stores and importers to satisfy those needs. This demand reflects realities of community building, identity and transnational links. Moreover, the presence of ethnic stores operating across inner city neighborhoods emerge as the interface of global economic links, connecting identity with necessity by selling those products demanded by migrants.

November 20, 2008: Tasting Identity: Trends in Migrant Demand for Home-Country Goods, Summary (PDF)
By USAID
This report is a study on the demand for nostalgic goods and the ways in which local ethnic stores support that demand. The study is the first of its kind and is based on a nationwide survey of 1300 individuals from twelve nationalities and interviews with nearly fifty ethnic stores supplying home country goods to migrant populations. The results of the study show that migrants manifest a solid demand that looks for quality and product selection, and relies on a network of stores and importers to satisfy those needs. This demand reflects realities of community building, identity and transnational links. Moreover, the presence of ethnic stores operating across inner city neighborhoods emerge as the interface of global economic links, connecting identity with necessity by selling those products demanded by migrants.

November 1, 2008: The Cuba Wars: Fidel Castro, the United States, and the Next Revolution
By Daniel P. Erikson
There are few international relationships that rival in intimacy, passion, and sheer tension that between the Cuba and the United States. In The Cuba Wars, Cuba expert Daniel Erikson draws on extensive visits to Cuba and conversations with both government officials and opposition leaders—plus the key players in Washington and Florida—to offer an unmatched portrait of a small country with very large importance to America.

September 30, 2008: Digesting Nostalgic Trade: A Prequel to a Value Chain Approach (PDF)
By U.S. Agency for International Development
This report is a study on the demand for nostalgic goods and the ways in which local ethnic stores support that demand. The study is the first of its kind and is based on a nationwide survey of 1300 individuals from twelve nationalities and interviews with nearly fifty ethnic stores supplying home country goods to migrant populations. The results of the study show that migrants manifest a solid demand that looks for quality and product selection, and relies on a network of stores and importers to satisfy those needs. This demand reflects realities of community building, identity and transnational links.

September 26, 2008: Education in Haiti - The Way Forward (PDF)
By PREAL (Laurence Wolff)
This PREAL report seeks to identify the principal issues and policy options that can help to guide those who are seeking to improve education in Haiti. It emphasizes clarifying and strengthening the role of the state—and of key non-state actors—in education. It begins with a summary of current education conditions and recent developments, and ends with a discussion of what the state and other actors might do to help ensure that education begins to meet the needs of the Haitian population.

September 1, 2008: Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of the Eleventh Annual Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) Conference on September 4-5, 2005.

September 1, 2008: Mining Remittance Data: Practical Considerations on Survey Design and Administration (PDF)
By U.S. Agency for International Development, September, 2008
This briefing offers practical guidelines and observations about survey data collection on remittances and how this data informs thinking on migration and development policy making. Obtaining accurate data on the volume of migrant remittances flows is notoriously difficult, as many remittances transfers still occur informally and even when funds are transferred through official channels—such as bank accounts, the internet, paid cards or phones—the mechanisms for measuring these flows are weak. However, the volume of remittances transfers and awareness of the importance of remittances to poverty reduction have grown over the last decade and donors and organizations specializing in migration-related issues have increasingly supported efforts to improve remittances-related information.

August 29, 2008: Two Perspectives on Ecuador: Rafael Correa's Political Project (PDF)
By Adrián Bonilla and César Montúfar
This paper offers two separate perspectives on the political origins and outlook of the Rafael Correa government, with a focus on its foreign policy priorities, including relations with the United States. These thoughtful essays, which concur in some respects and diverge in others, provide important insights about where the Correa administration might be headed.

August 25, 2008: Lecciones Aprendidas y Posibilidades de Replicabilidad de Políticas y Leyes Sobre el Vínculo Entre Remesas y Desarrollo (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Este trabajo ofrece reflexiones y comentarios sobre las experiencias y lecciones aprendidas de las buenas prácticas de proyectos e iniciativas para aprovechar la remesa familiar con el propósito de fomentar el desarrollo económico y social. El trabajo usa la experiencia acumulada sobre iniciativas que han ocurrido a escala mundial así como también el insumo de otros colegas, en particular el trabajo de García Zamora (2008) y Atienza (2008). Trabajo presentado para el FORO INTERPARLAMENTARIO CENTROAMÉRICA Y REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA: HACIA UNA AGENDA COMÚN “Migración, Remesas y Desarrollo,” Nicaragua.

August 25, 2008: Las remesas en el desarrollo regional: Impacto social y macroeconómico, implementación de políticas públicas y oportunidades de participación parlamentaria (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Trabajo presentado para el FORO INTERPARLAMENTARIO CENTROAMÉRICA Y REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA: HACIA UNA AGENDA COMÚN “Migración, Remesas y Desarrollo,” Nicaragua.

August 12, 2008: Migración y Remesas en Honduras: Sinopsis de los resultados de la última encuesta sobre remesas y migración realizada en Junio 2008 por Borges & Asociados (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Presentación de la encuesta

August 7, 2008: Como hicieron los mejores sitemas educativos con mejor desempeño del mundo para alcanzar sus objetivos
By PREAL (Michael Barber and Mona Mourshed)
The Dialogue’s education reform program (PREAL) recently launched the Spanish-language version of McKinsey & Company’s innovative 2007 study, How the World’s Best-Performing School Systems Come Out on Top.

August 1, 2008: Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America: Third Edition
By Jorge I. Domínguez and Michael Shifter
Edited by Jorge I. Domínguez and Michael Shifter and featuring contributions from more than a dozen leading scholars of democratization studies, this volume provides a concise and up-to-date measure of the quality of democracy in Latin America.

July 18, 2008: Integration in the Americas: One Idea for Plan B (PDF)
By Nancy Lee
In this new essay, co-published by the Center for Global Development and Inter-American Dialogue, CGD visiting fellow Nancy Lee suggests a fresh approach to regional integration in the form of a proposed regional investment agreement. The idea is a collective effort to set common standards for reducing specific barriers to domestic and foreign investment, similar to standards set in trade agreements for lowering trade barriers.

July 1, 2008: Bolivia's Long and Winding Road (PDF)
By George Gray Molina
George Gray Molina disentangles the exceedingly complex situation in Bolivia by identifying the interests and roles of the key actors involved. Gray sheds light on the sources of the political stalemate in advance of the August 10 recall referendum and outlines three scenarios for Bolivian politics in the period to follow.

July 1, 2008: A Watershed Moment in Venezuela (PDF)
By Teodoro Petkoff
In this paper, Teodoro Petkoff--editor of the Venezuelan daily TalCual, former minister of economic planning, and one of the region’s leading public intellectuals--dissects the causes and explores the political implications of the Venezuelan voters’ rejection of Hugo Chávez’s constitutional reform referendum in December of 2007. He also sets the stage for local and regional elections in November and previews Chávez’s agenda for the rest of his second term.

July 1, 2008: PREAL Working Paper No. 41: Como hicieron los mejores sitemas educativos con mejor desempeño del mundo para alcanzar sus objetivos (PDF)
By Michel Barber and Mona Mourshed
This document is the Spanish version of the McKinsey & Co. study, How the World’s Best-Performing School Systems Come Out on Top. The study seeks to understand why some school systems perform better than others, and why some educational reforms succeed when others fail.

May 1, 2008: Guatemala: Ten Years After the Agreements on a Firm and Lasting Peace (PDF)
By Gustavo Porras Castejón
Guatemala is often referred to as the country of the eternal spring. The defining elements of its political history, however, have been darkness, violence, and exclusion.

May 1, 2008: Apostar por la Educación: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Nicaragua 2007 (PDF)
By Policy Monitoring Reports
El informe destaca los avances en matrícula a nivel de primaria, pero indica que aún queda fuera de la escuela una cantidad importante de niños en edad preescolar y de adolescentes que deberían estar en secundaria. La repetición y deserción escolar siguen siendo un problema importante en el país, y persisten las brechas en los diferentes indicadores de educación entre el campo y la ciudad, entre pobres y no pobres y entre territorios según las condiciones de pobreza de sus habitantes. Se destacan los avances en fomento de una cultura de evaluación, así como el aumento de los recursos en educación. Sin embargo, se indica que el presupuesto sigue siendo insuficiente y tampoco están claras las prioridades, quedando rezagado, entre otros, el tema de equiparar los salarios de los docentes al promedio centroamericano.

April 1, 2008: Beyond Tourism: The Future of the Services Industry in the Caribbean (PDF)
By Daniel P. Erikson and Joyce Lawrence
In recent years, the small economies of the Caribbean have entered a time of extraordinary economic uncertainty, as traditional industries face new challenges amid a fiercely competitive global environment. The process of globalization over the past few decades has had a profound effect on developing countries worldwide, and the Caribbean has been no exception.

April 1, 2008: Latino migrants: A profile on remittances, finances, and health (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco and Nancy Castillo
This document provides a descriptive profile of the main traits and characteristics of Latin American migrants in the United States. The document serves as an educational reference to easily access facts on migrants’ behavior on money transfers and finances. Moreover, it also attempts to look at the socio-economic profile of this population including attention to their health condition.

March 1, 2008: PREAL Working Paper No. 40: Las evaluaciones educativas que América Latina necesita (PDF)
By PREAL (Ravela, Arregui, Valverde, Wolfe, Ferrer, Martínez Rizo, Aylwin, Wolff)
Este documento aborda la importancia, propósitos y usos de las evaluaciones estandarizadas a gran escala de aprendizajes y/o logros educativos en América Latina y el Caribe, básicamente en los niveles primario y medio. Está dirigido a quienes formulan políticas educativas, docentes, académicos, empresarios, sindicatos, organizaciones sociales, agencias de financiamiento y medios de prensa, con el fin de aportar al debate y decisiones sobre la evaluación estandarizada en los sistemas educativos.

March 1, 2008: PREAL Working Paper No. 40 - The Educational Assessments that Latin America Needs (PDF)
By PREAL (Ravela, Arregui, Valverde, Wolfe, Ferrer, Martínez Rizo, Aylwin, Wolff)
This working paper addresses the need for and uses of large-scale standardized assessments, typically in primary and secondary school, of learning and/or educational achievement in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is aimed at policymakers in the field of education, teachers, academics, business people, members of trade unions and social organizations, and those working in financial agencies and the media. It seeks to contribute to the debate on standardized testing in education systems and to decisions made in that regard.

February 1, 2008: A Dialética do Bom Aluno: relações raciais e o sistema educacional brasileiro (PDF)
By PREAL (Marcelo Paixão)
This special report by PREAL aims to promote consideration of the racial inequalities inherent in the educational indicators for the Brazilian population. The pronounced asymmetries experienced by different racial groups in terms of their access to and persistence in the Brazilian education system are already well recognized. This report focuses on the premise that educational indicators for whites and blacks are notably and consistently different, overwhelmingly favoring the former group.

February 1, 2008: Toward the Mainstream: current trends and dynamics of remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
This paper seeks to point out to four key issues related to the current trends of money transfers: the problems of lack of banking access despite a demand for financial services, lessons learned when financial intermediation exists, current dynamics in the remittance environment, including problems with account closings. Remittance transfers are one of the manifestations of contemporary transnational family ties and foreign labor mobility. Beyond the large volumes that are sustaining millions of families, these flows contribute to increase savings among recipient households, and in turn strengthen financial institutions and a country’s economy. With appropriate policy tools the impact of these flows will have potential development implications in the countries where these flows are arriving and can help mitigate any new challenges.

January 31, 2008: Migración y Remesas en Nicaragua: Análisis y Resultados de la ultima encuesta sobre remesas y migración realizada en enero por M & R (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Trabajo presentado para la reunión “Democracia, Cohesión Social e Integración Regional” parte de la Serie de Encuentros Centroamericanos en Managua, Nicaragua 2007-2008. Ver también: Centroamérica: remesas, economía y las finanzas con aproximación al caso Nicaragüense de Manuel Orozco

January 22, 2008: Guatemala: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz firme y duradera (PDF)
By Gustavo Porras Castejón

January 20, 2008: Centroamérica: remesas, economía y las finanzas con aproximación al caso Nicaragüense (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Trabajo presentado para la reunión “Democracia, Cohesión Social E Integración Regional” parte de la Serie de Encuentros Centroamericanos en Managua, Nicaragua 2007-2008. Ver también: Migración y Remesas en Nicaragua: Análisis y Resultados de la ultima encuesta sobre remesas y migración realizada en enero por M & R de Manuel Orozco

January 9, 2008: Fair Growth: Economic Policies for Latin America's Poor and Middle-Income Majority (PDF)
By Nancy Birdsall, Augusto de la Torre, and Rachel Menezes
This book presents a dozen ideas, or “tools,” meant to make life in Latin America more equitable and fair for the great majority of its people—not only for the rich, a small elite, but also for the rest. It is high time for leaders (in government, business, and civil society) in Latin America to embrace fairness as a fundamental goal. Latin America has undertaken one set of changes in order to develop more open and competitive market economies. The benefits of that first step now need to be complemented and reinforced by a second set of changes—changes aimed at fairness and at emphasizing jobs and access to key productive assets for the silent majority. Long-standing inequality in the region has fostered a deep sense of unfairness and injustice. We hope that our agenda rekindles hope that open markets and democratic institutions will, finally, make a difference.

January 1, 2008: Women in the Americas: Paths to Political Power (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue, Inter-American Development Bank, League of Women Voters
A group of women political leaders from across the Americas met in Washington on March 28, 2007 to discuss the dramatic advances achieved by women seeking public office in the past ten years—and the special challenges currently facing women in electoral politics. Held at the Library of Congress and the Inter-American Development Bank, the meeting Women in the Americas: Paths to Political Power was co-sponsored by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Inter-American Dialogue, League of Women Voters of the United States, Inter-American Foundation, and Organization of American States (OAS).

December 1, 2007: Ghanaian Remitters in the Netherlands: A Preliminary Overview (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco and Mindanda Mohogu
This paper presents the findings of a random survey of 330 Ghanaian migrants who send remittances from the Netherlands. The study shows that Ghanaians are an active community engaged with their home country. This community exhibits incomes relatively lower and younger than native born Dutch.

November 1, 2007: PREAL Working Paper No. 39: Calidad de la educación y crecimiento económico (PDF)
By Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Wößmann
El documento de trabajo examina la relación entre la educación y el crecimiento económico. En particular, presta atención a la importancia de la calidad educativa, instituciones adecuadas, y un gasto educacional eficiente.

November 1, 2007: Haiti: Real Progress, Real Fragility (PDF)
By Peter D. Bell, The Right Honorable Joe Clark, Carlo Dade, Dan Erikson, Peter Hakim
Haitian President René Préval says that his country no longer deserves its "failed state" stigma, and he is right. Haiti's recent progress is real and profound, but it is jeopardized by continued institutional dysfunction, including the government's inexperience in working with Parliament. There is an urgent need to create jobs, attract investment, overhaul and expand access to basic social services, and achieve tangible signs of economic recovery. Now that the United Nations has extended its peacekeeping mandate until October 2008, the international community must seek ways to expand the Haitian state's capacity to absorb development aid and improve the welfare of the population. The alternative could be dangerous backsliding.

October 12, 2007: Crimen y Violencia en las Américas (PDF)
By Francisco Rojas Aravena

October 1, 2007: Poverty and Inequality in Latin America: How the U.S. Can Really Help (PDF)
By Nancy Birdsall and Peter Hakim
For the last two decades, Washington's limited attention to Latin America has focused mainly on promotion of free trade and opposition to narcotics trafficking and security threats. Not since President Kennedy launched his Alliance for Progress in 1961 has social development been the centerpiece of U.S. policy in Latin America. While the bulk of reforms to address the region’s pervasive poverty and inequality must come from governments, corporations and civil societies of Latin America itself, there is much that the United States can do to help. This brief describes the political risks poverty and inequality pose for the region and the hemisphere, including the United States, and lays out a practical agenda for U.S. assistance.

September 17, 2007: Central America: remittances and the macroeconomic variable (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Report prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank. This report provides an analysis of the relationship between remittances and the local economies in Central America, with special attention to Nicaragua and Guatemala. Based on time series quarterly data and nationwide surveys, the report looks at the impact of remittances on growth, exchange rates and savings in Central America. The report also provides some policy recommendations to leverage and mitigate the impact of remittances.

September 1, 2007: PREAL Working Paper No. 38: The Costs of Student Assessments in Latin America (PDF)
By Laurence Wolff
This study is based on data about the cost of student assessments in each of five countries in the region: Chile, Colombia, Honduras, Peru, and Uruguay. It analyzes the cost-benefit ratio of each type of testing compared to results on student achievement.

September 1, 2007: PREAL Working Paper No. 38: Los costos de las evaluaciones de aprendizaje en America Latina (PDF)
By Laurence Wolff
El estudio se basa en datos de cinco países de la región (Chile, Colombia, Honduras, Perú y Uruguay) sobre los costos de las evaluaciones de aprendizaje realizadas en cada país. Se brinda un análisis de la realidad particular de cada operativo de evaluación.

September 1, 2007: Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of the Tenth Anniversary Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) Conference on September 7-8, 2006.

August 15, 2007: Estándares en Educación. Implicancias para su Aplicación en América Latina (PDF)
By Guillermo Ferrer
This book was written by Guillermo Ferrer, within the framework of PREAL’s Working Group on Education Standards and Assessment. It describes the trends, emphases, and implications of the learning standards currently being established and implemented in Latin America. Spanish.

July 23, 2007: Challenges to Democracy in the Americas and the Role of the Inter-American Democratic Charter (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Conclusions from the May 24, 2007 meeting on Challenges to Democracy in the Americas and the Role of the Inter-American Democratic Charter.

June 4, 2007: Necesitamos Aprender con Calidad: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Panamá 2007 (PDF)
By PREAL/CoSPAE
This report, produced in conjunction with national partner CoSPAE (Consjeo del Sector Privado para la Asistencia Educacional), provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in Panama. The document covers changes since the 2002 Panama Report Card (El Reto es Avanazar). Spanish.

May 3, 2007: Making the Most of Family Remittances (PDF)
By IAD Task Force on Remittances
Subsequent to the publication of the 2004 report of the Inter-American Dialogue’s Task Force on Remittances, All in the Family, the task force convened twice more to review developments in the field and explore a few mechanisms that would allow families to get more out of remittance transfers. Although the cost of sending remittances has decreased sharply over the last several years, further reductions can and should be achieved. Another challenge is to turn remittance senders and recipients into bank customers. Without changing the private and voluntary nature of remittance transfers, governments can create productive opportunities for their use. Finally, understanding the macroeconomic effects of remittances is essential in developing appropriate incentives to increase their contribution to national development.

May 1, 2007: A Lot to Do: A Report Card on Education in Central America and the Dominican Republic, 2007 (PDF)
By PREAL
This report provides an overview of the current state of education in Central America and the Dominican Republic, and highlights areas of progress and concern since 2003, using a report card format. English and Spanish.

May 1, 2007: Mucho por hacer: Informe de Progreso Educativo de Centroamerica y República Dominicana, 2007 (PDF)
By Policy Monitoring Reports
El presente informe se hizo a partir de la información estadística disponible hasta julio de 2006 en base a datos internacionales. El objetivo central ha sido registrar y analizar los resultados de los sistemas educativos en la región.

March 28, 2007: Liderazgo y Participación Política para las Mujeres Afrodescendientes (PDF)
By Epsy Campbell Barr
Prepared for the conference: WOMEN IN THE AMERICAS: PATHS TO POLITICAL POWER

March 28, 2007: Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card (PDF)
By Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer
Prepared for the conference, WOMEN IN THE AMERICAS: PATHS TO POLITICAL POWER

March 28, 2007: Women in Power: How Presence Affects Politics (PDF)
By Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer
Prepared for the conference, WOMEN IN THE AMERICAS: PATHS TO POLITICAL POWER

March 28, 2007: Political Parties and Women's Leadership in Latin America (PDF)
By Teresa Sacchet
Prepared for the conference, WOMEN IN THE AMERICAS: PATHS TO POLITICAL POWER

March 28, 2007: Gender Quota Laws in Global Perspective (PDF)
By Mona Lena Krook
Prepared for the conference, WOMEN IN THE AMERICAS: PATHS TO POLITICAL POWER.

March 14, 2007: Research on Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
On March 14, 2007, the Inter-American Dialogue brought together analysts and policy officials from U.S. and Latin American government agencies, private foundations, banks and other financial institutions, and international organizations to review current research priorities on remittances, discuss the main policy challenges regarding remittance flows, and identify new research and data needed to address the policy challenges. This memorandum summarizes the day-long discussion.

March 8, 2007: Hugo Chávez: A Test for U.S. Policy (PDF)
By Michael Shifter
The relationship with Venezuela poses a major challenge for U.S. policy in the hemisphere, but Washington has shown little skill or consistency when dealing with Hugo Chávez as he moves to polarize the region and disrupt the U.S. agenda, according to a special Inter-American Dialogue report released today. The report, by Michael Shifter, vice-president for policy at the Dialogue, offers ten guidelines to help U.S. government officials formulate a more coherent approach to the complex Venezuelan situation and build a more effective presence in the region. In addition, the report addresses the impact of Chávez’s growing international profile on U.S.-Venezuela relations, particularly the varied economic ties within the region and the connection with Iran. The monograph also presents analysis of internal Venezuelan issues such as the growing military role in politics, the moves towards nationalization, and efforts to restrict press freedom.

March 8, 2007: Hugo Chávez: Un Desafío para la Política Exterior de los Estados Unidos (PDF)
By Michael Shifter
Hugo Chávez: Un Desafío para la Política Exterior de los Estados Unidos se propone ayudar a las autoridades del gobierno a sortear los múltiples escollos que plantea la situación venezolana y contribuir a la implementación de una política eficaz y sostenible hacia ese país. Las pautas que aquí se plantean surgen de un cuidadoso análisis del gobierno de Chávez y de la relación entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela durante los últimos ocho años.

February 1, 2007: 2006 Program Report (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
A summary overview of the Inter-American Dialogue’s work in 2006.

January 31, 2007: Construyendo el Futuro: Informe de Progreso Educativo, El Salvador 2006 (PDF)
By PREAL/Centro Alfa
This report, produced in conjunction with national partner Centro Alfa, provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in El Salvador. The document covers changes since the 2002 El Salvador Report Card. Spanish.

January 29, 2007: PREAL Recognized in El Salvador (PDF)
By Michael Lisman
Minister of Education Darlyn Meza honored the Inter-American Dialogue's education program, the Partnership for Education Revitalization in the Americas (PREAL), with an award for its 10 years of assistance in promoting education reform.

January 9, 2007: Leveraging Efforts on Remittances and Financial Intermediation (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco; Rachel Fedewa
This report seeks to analyze the efforts among financial institutions to leverage the relationship between financial intermediation and remittance transfers.

January 2, 2007: Incorporating Race and Ethnicity into the UN Millennium Development Goals (PDF)
By Edward E. Telles
In 2000, all UN member countries pledged to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)—a set of social development targets to be reached by 2015. The targets include cutting by half the percentage of persons living on less than one dollar a day, providing every child with a primary education, reducing child mortality by two-thirds, slashing maternal mortality by three-quarters, and halving the number of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water.

January 1, 2007: PREAL Working Paper No. 37: La remuneración de los maestros en América Latina: ¿Es baja? ¿Afecta la calidad de la enseñanza? (PDF)
By Claudio de Moura Castro and Gustavo Ioschpe
This paper analyzes teachers’ remuneration in Latin America, asking whether teachers earn less than non-teachers, and whether there is evidence of a relationship between remuneration and the quality of teaching. The document systematizes existing research to draw conclusions that will be useful to researchers and policy makers. Spanish.

January 1, 2007: Ending the Conflict with the FARC: Time for a New Course (PDF)
By Antonio Navarro Wolff
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written by Antonio Navarro Wolff, a leader of the Polo Democrático Independiente party in Colombia, identifies the battle with the FARC as the key element in the Colombian situation and proposes a comprehensive solution to resolve the conflict. Navarro draws on his experience as a senator, Minister of Health, mayor, and leader of the M-19 guerrilla group to argue that neither military pressure nor negotiations alone will succeed given the FARC’s defensive capabilities and enormous ambitions. Instead, he recommends that the government expand its current focus and pursue a more ambitious strategy in the rural sector, including promoting alternative crops, ending fumigation, voluntary relocation, and youth programs.

December 29, 2006: Fichas Didácticas. Para Comprender las Evaluaciones Educativas (PDF)
By Pedro Ravela
This book serves as a guide on the uses, benefits and limits of standardized testing. Spanish.

December 15, 2006: Educación y Brechas de Equidad en América Latina - Tomo I (PDF)
By Santiago Cueto
This book, together with Educación y Brechas de Equidad en América Latina - Tomo II, contains nine research papers that were funded in the second round of a region-wide research competition organized in 2003-2004 by PREAL’s Latin American Educational Research Fund (FIE) with support from the World Bank. Spanish.

December 15, 2006: Educación y Brechas de Equidad en América Latina - Tomo II (PDF)
By Santiago Cueto
This book, together with Educación y Brechas de Equidad en América Latina. Tomo I, contains nine research papers that were funded in the second round of a region-wide research competition organized in 2003-2004 by PREAL’s Latin American Educational Research Fund (FIE) with support from the World Bank. Spanish.

December 15, 2006: Quantity without Quality: A Report Card on Education in Latin America, 2006 (PDF)
By PREAL
This is the second report card on education in Latin America. It offers the best information available on aspects of education—access, quality, and equity—that are crucial to improving learning. Also available in Portuguese and Spanish.

December 12, 2006: Hay Avances, pero Quedan Desafíos: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Colombia 2006 (PDF)
By PREAL/Corpoeducación/Fundación Corona/Empresarios por la Educación
This report, produced in conjunction with national partners Corpoeducacion, Fundación Corona and Empresarios por la Educación, presents an independent analysis of key indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in Colombia’s education system between 2000 and 2005. Spanish.

December 8, 2006: Sobre Estándares y Evaluaciones en América Latina (PDF)
By Patricia Arregui
This book is an anthology of notable papers produced by PREAL’s Working Group on Education Standards and Assessment between 2000 and 2004, and includes analyses of the policies, practices, achievements, and expectations of education standards and learning assessments in Latin America. Spanish.

December 1, 2006: Petropolitics in Latin America: A Review of Energy Policy and Regional Relations (PDF)
By Genaro Arriagada
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written by Genaro Arriagada, who directs Chile’s Diario Siete and previously served as minister of the presidency and Chile’s ambassador to the United States, focuses on the complex interplay between energy and politics in Latin America. Arriagada, who led the successful “No” campaign in the plebiscite that ended the rule of General Pinochet, explores the possibilities and limits of using energy resources as a political tool in different countries and sub-regions, with a particular emphasis on Venezuela. He takes into account a wide range of key variables in his comprehensive assessment of Latin America’s evolving political landscape.

November 20, 2006: Calidad con Equidad: El Desafío de la Educación Ecuatoriana: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Ecuador 2006 (PDF)
By PREAL/Fundación Ecuador/Contrato Social para la Educación/Grupo Faro
This report card, produced in conjunction with national partners Fundación Ecuador, Contrato Social para la Educación, and Grupo Faro, provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in Ecuador. Spanish.

November 1, 2006: La Educación Peruana Sigue Enfrentando Desafíos: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Perú 2006 (PDF)
By PREAL/GRADE
This report, produced in conjunction with national partner GRADE (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo), provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in Peru. The document covers changes since the 2003 Peru Report Card.

November 1, 2006: A New Uribe: Álvaro Uribe's Second-Term Challenges (PDF)
By Rodrigo Pardo
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written by Rodrigo Pardo, the director of Colombia’s leading weekly news magazine, Semana, sets forth the principal challenges facing Álvaro Uribe in his second term. Pardo, a former minister of foreign affairs and one of Latin America’s leading international relations specialists, reviews the advantages and drawbacks of Colombia’s relationship with the United States and emphasizes the importance of strengthening Colombia’s relationships with Europe, multilateral institutions, and other Latin American governments. Pardo also contrasts the composition of the cabinet and opposition during Uribe’s first and second terms. In addition, Pardo assesses Uribe’s prospects for carrying out his challenging and varied reform agenda.

November 1, 2006: Un brindis por América Latina (PDF)
By Michael Shifter
A collection of essays on political life in the United States and Latin America, originally published in the Peruvian magazine ideele.

October 16, 2006: Between a rock and a hard place: Migrant remittance senders, banking access and alternative products (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Although financial access for immigrants has been a key issue stressed by several institutions, many challenges remain in increasing the ratio of incorporation of foreign born Hispanics into banking and depository institutions or alternative electronic payment systems. This paper is the result of a study identifying the extent of banking access and penetration among migrant remittance senders; it explores the determinants of banking access, challenges to bringing Latinos into financial institutions, and the challenges of use of alternative payment mechanisms to provide financial services to migrants. The paper looks at best practices while it analyzes supply and demand solutions to issues of low access to banking institutions.

October 11, 2006: Of politics and democracy in Nicaragua in the XXIst century (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Last September 9, 2005, the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States (OAS) said that “the escalation of the institutional and political crisis in Nicaragua threatens the country’s democratic governance, the legitimate exercise of power, and the rule of law, with serious social and economic consequences, both now and in the future, for the people of Nicaragua.

October 2, 2006: Quantidade sem Qualidade - Um Boletim da Educação na América Latina (PDF)
By PREAL
This is the second report card on education in Latin America. It offers the best information available on aspects of education—access, quality, and equity—that are crucial to improving learning. Also available in English and Spanish.

September 1, 2006: Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of the Ninth Annual Conference on September 7-8, 2005. Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF).

August 23, 2006: Maestros de Escuelas Básicas en América Latina: Hacia una Radiografía de la Profesión (PDF)
By Denise Vaillant and Cecilia Rossel
This book is a compilation of studies prepared for PREAL’s Working Group on Teacher Professionalization. Together, these papers provide an overview of the personal and professional characteristics in seven Latin American countries (Argentina, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Uruguay). Spanish.

August 1, 2006: PREAL Working Paper No. 36: Dos Clases de Políticas Educativas. La Política de las Políticas Públicas (PDF)
By Juan Carlos Navarro
This paper, originally published as chapter 10 in The Politics of Public Policy by the Inter-American Development Bank, examines the political challenges facing six policy initiatives in four countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico. The analysis distinguishes between policy initiatives with broad political support and those that face political resistance because of their impact on powerful interest groups. Spanish.

August 1, 2006: Remittances, prepaid cards and financial opportunities (PDF)
By Orozco, Manuel and Jacob, Katy
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there exists a correspondence between remittance based prepaid card products and remittance senders’ demands for financial products, including prepaid cards. One rationale informing this project lies in the fact that the increasing relevance of remittance transfers as an industry for financial payment companies, and the recent emergence of electronic prepaid products, are somewhat converging patterns on the supply and demand for international payment systems.

July 14, 2006: Conversando en la Escuela. Herramientas para la Prevención de la Violencia en las Escuelas (PDF)
By PREAL
This book is a product of the “Conversando en la Escuela” project, in which PREAL participated with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank. The project supported and studied the characteristics and lessons that could be learned from six promising school violence prevention programs in Latin America and the Caribbean. Spanish.

June 16, 2006: Considerations on diasporas and development (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
As the reality of globalization reaches more people than ever before, the role and impact of diasporas in development are becoming increasingly critical considerations in policy and politics. The movement of people today is more transnational than at any other time in history, and effective economic integration thus depends on the human links and connections that exist across borders. The same is true for development in that it also demands less territorialized strategies; this is the critical challenge for practitioners and volunteers alike. The following are some thoughts on the challenges and considerations to keep in mind when looking for opportunities to establish projects and partnerships with diasporas.

June 1, 2006: China’s Relations with Latin America: Shared Gains, Asymmetric Hopes (PDF)
By Jorge I. Domínguez
China Working Paper
In this policy brief, Domínguez and his colleagues examine how China’s role in the Americas has evolved over the decades, with a special emphasis on its bilateral ties with such key countries in the region as Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Venezuela, and Cuba.

June 1, 2006: Responding to the Hemisphere’s Political Challenges (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of The Inter-American Dialogue Task Force on the Organization of American States. Summary of recommendations found in this report can be found here

June 1, 2006: Responding To The Hemisphere’s Political Challenges Recommendations (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Summary of the recommendations found in the Report of The Inter-American Dialogue Task Force on the Organization of American States

June 1, 2006: Construyendo el Futuro: Informe de Progreso Educativo (PDF)
By PREAL/Centro ALFA
Desde que presentamos el primer informe de progreso educativo en septiembre de 2002, hasta finales del 2005, El Salvador ha tenido importantes avances en el ámbito educativo. Los resultados en las pruebas de logros de aprendizaje de educación básica y media han tenido un modesto incremento, aunque la mayoría de estudiantes todavía se ubica en el nivel intermedio. La matriculación en primaria (primero y segundo ciclo de educación básica) es alta, inclusive en las zonas rurales, y es equitativa en términos de género. Las tasas de repitencia y deserción han disminuido.

May 10, 2006: Diasporas, philanthropy and hometown associations: the Central American experience (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Although diaspora philanthropic organizing is not a new phenomenon, their projects and interests in local community development have spread out through the visible activism of hometown associations. This paper looks at the experience of hometown associations in Central America as an illustration of voluntary work on development and a manifestation of a transnational identity characterized by the interplay between micro and macro dynamics, living in a real world of ‘distant proximities’ (Rosenau 2003).

April 14, 2006: Educational Assessment Systems in Latin America: Current Practice and Future Challenges (PDF)
By Guillermo Ferrer
This book is based on three studies on learning assessments and national assessment systems in Latin America conducted by PREAL’s Working Group on Education Standards and Assessment. English and Spanish.

April 1, 2006: Military and Politics in the Andean Region (PDF)
By Carlos Basombrío Iglesias
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written by Carlos Basombrío, researcher at the Institute of Peruvian Studies in Lima, political columnist for Perú 21, and former Peruvian vice minister of the interior, offers valuable comparative insights about the role of the military in politics in the countries of the Andean region. Basombrío notes that the weakness of democratic institutions in the region and the participation of the armed forces in tasks unrelated to their primary function leads to a high degree of political involvement by the military. He argues that unless political elites undertake serious military reform, democracy and civil-military relations will deteriorate, heightening instability in the Andean region.

March 13, 2006: Accountability Educacional: Posibilidades y Desafíos para América Latina a Partir de la Experiencia Internacional (PDF)
By PREAL
This book includes a few selected works from papers presented at the Seminar on Educational Accountability: Possibilities and Challenges for Latin America Based on International Experience, a co-initiative of PREAL and CIDE. Spanish

March 2, 2006: Gender and remittances: Preliminary notes about senders and recipients in Latin America and the Caribbean (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Within the changing landscape of migration where both men and women are moving across borders, remittance transfers also follow gendered lines. These dynamics are the differences in sex and social practices that signify the presence of prevailing relations hips in the broader context of contemporary transnational migration (Ramirez 2005).

March 1, 2006: Understanding the remittance economy in Haiti (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Migration is one characteristic feature that has shaped Haiti’s history and its people. However, over the past twenty years the influx of Haitians abroad has increased in larger numbers and impacted their home country’s economy and society in various ways. This report looks at the impact of remittances and other economic practices on the Haitian economy, and how to create opportunities to leverage these funds for local development.

March 1, 2006: Transnational Families: lives on the edge, but in pursuit of change (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
At the heart of money transfers and their intersection with development is the very human face of family remittances. These flows relate to the social condition of senders and recipients and their struggle to meet the basic needs of their families: the interactions and relationships that occur from senders and recipients of money are part of a family affair of transnational nature. In this report we explore the extent to which transnational families hold shared understandings of the needs and circumstances in their household. To that end, interviews with and analysis of twenty-two pairs of transnational families of various Latin American and Caribbean origins were conducted in order to further understand their needs and gauge the level of mutual understanding that exists between what a remittance sender believes are it’s needs and what a remittance recipient knows are its needs.

December 1, 2005: PREAL Working Paper No. 34: Accountability Educacional en Brasil. (PDF)
By Nigel Brooke
This document looks at the motives behind adopting systematic student assessments as an integral part of education policy in certain states in Brazil.

December 1, 2005: Cuba, Venezuela and the Americas: A Changing Landscape (PDF)
By The Cuba Forum

September 20, 2005: Remittances, Competition, and Financial Intermediation for Unbanked Migrants (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
The contemporary global landscape is organized along the lines of an interplay between micro and macro dynamics that creates what Rosenau calls ‘distant proximities’ (Rosenau, 2003). These are experiences that simultaneously integrate and fragment relationships within and outside territorial boundaries. Immigrants are key protagonists of globalization and emblematic of distant proximities: while their lives are fragmented by the experience of migration which separates them from their families and nations, through their labor mobility, they integrate their home and host countries into the global economy in order to keep their own families together. The end result is a transnational lifestyle, characterized by both opportunities and hardships that feature this paradox of distance and closeness.

September 16, 2005: Educación: El Futuro es Hoy: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Honduras 2005 (PDF)
By PREAL/FEREMA
This report, produced in conjunction with national partner FEREMA (Fundación para la Educación Ricardo Ernest Maduro Andreu) provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems). The document covers changes since the 2002 Honduras Report Card. Spanish.

August 1, 2005: Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of the Eighth Annual Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) Conference on September 8-9, 2004.

August 1, 2005: Free Speech in the Americas: From Verbitsky to Herrera Ulloa (PDF)
By Montserrat Solano Carboni

August 1, 2005: Regional Integration? Trends and Patterns of Remittance flows within South East Asia (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco with Rachel Fedewa
International migration is increasingly influencing the global economy. Remittances sent by migrant workers amount to some US$200 billion going to countries and regions in Latin America, Asia, Africa or Europe.1 The South East Asia region is an important example of the global trend. Historically, this region been characterized by fluid migration, but recent economic and other changes have dramatically increased these flows of people and money.

August 1, 2005: Haiti: Preparing for Elections (PDF)
By Daniel P. Erikson, Adam Minson
Haiti has not held an election in five years; today, the country is virtually devoid of elected leaders. Haiti's nine-member provisional electoral council, which has ultimate authority over the voting process, has established a preliminary timeline for elections. Municipal elections are scheduled for October 9, with a first round of legislative and presidential contests scheduled for November 13, followed by a second round on December 18. The UN Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) and the Organization of American States are working closely with Haitian actors to organize the vote. Although the provisional electoral council has been criticized for moving too slowly and being ineffectual, the body is generally considered more transparent than its predecessors, some of which were considered overly politicized or complicit in fraud. Still, the electoral council will need to hasten its preparations if elections are to occur on schedule.

August 1, 2005: PREAL Working Paper No. 33: Políticas de Reforma Educativa Comparación entre Países. (PDF)
By Robert R. Kaufman and Joan M. Nelson
This document compares different education reforms in Latin America and draws conclusions regarding how political considerations condition policy output in different countries. Spanish.

July 1, 2005: Towards Greater "Human Security" and Peace in Colombia/ The Risk of a Regional Human Rights and Humanitarian Crisis (PDF)
By Michael Shifter and César Montúfar
Andean Working Paper - This paper is divided into two sections. The first, written by Michael Shifter, places the policy challenge facing Colombia within a human security framework. The roles played by key actors in the international community in advancing human security goals are discussed. These include the United Nations, Organization of American States, European and US governments, and various non-governmental groups. The second section is written by prominent Ecuadorian social scientist César Montúfar, from the Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar in Quito. In accordance with key aspects of the human security framework, Montúfar analyzes the effects of the Colombian conflict on neighboring countries, particularly Ecuador. Montufar reviews the efforts of individual country governments and international organizations and suggests how they could be more effective in addressing the humanitarian and environmental problems arising from the conflict.

July 1, 2005: A Break in the Clouds: Latin America and the Caribbean in 2005 (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
This year’s report—A Break in the Clouds—conveys our hope that the impressive growth of Latin America’s economies in 2004 and 2005 will be sustained and will help ease the region’s damaging political and social strains. But it also expresses concern that, without substantial policy and institutional reform, the current economic expansion may be short lived.

June 1, 2005: State, Drug Policy, and Democracy in the Andes (PDF)
By Eduardo Gamarra
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written by Eduardo Gamarra, the director of Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Florida International University and a highly respected political scientist, tackles one of the central challenges facing the Andean region. The drug problem is particularly serious in Colombia, Bolivia and Peru—the three countries treated in this paper—and has profound and widespread implications for institutions of democratic governance. Gamarra highlights the importance of state capacity in addressing the problem, and argues that the current policy approach is unlikely to succeed in the long term. He offers some suggestions for improving the effectiveness of drug policy in the region.

June 1, 2005: Europe and the Colombian Conflict (PDF)
By Sabine Kurtenbach
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written by Sabine Kurtenbach, principal researcher at the Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos in Hamburg, Germany, reviews the role that Europe has played, and continues to play, regarding Colombia’s conflict. Kurtenbach points out the key differences in approach and strategy between Europe and the United States, but emphasizes a set of shared goals. She also identifies the prospects for further convergence and collaboration on policy questions such as human rights, drugs, and social development in the coming period of international support to help Colombia move towards an enduring peace.

June 1, 2005: Scrutinizing Democracy in Latin America: A Discussion of the UNDP's Report on Democracy in Latin America (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
The Inter-American Dialogue and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) present this report from a joint forum on the UNDP’s widely cited report on the strength and quality of democracy in Latin America, Democracy in Latin America: Towards a Citizens’ Democracy. The session was an opportunity for U.S. political leaders and policy analysts to actively engage the Latin American authors of the report in an extensive discussion of its finding and implications.

May 2, 2005: Democracy and the Media: The Ineluctable Connection between Democracy and the Quality of Journalism (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
A Report of the Commission on the Media and Democracy in Central America.

May 2, 2005: Democracia y medios: La ineludible conexión entre democracia y calidad del periodismo (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
A Project of the Commission on the Media and Democracy in Central America.

April 4, 2005: Pasantías de Maestros en América Latina. Una Herramienta para Estimular la Innovación Educativa. (PDF)
By PREAL
This book explores the background, results, and recommendations of a four year initiative of education tours throughout Central and South America. Spanish.

April 1, 2005: PREAL Working Paper No. 35: Una revisión a la participación escolar en América Latina (PDF)
By Margarita López
This paper reviews the norms, programs, and practices related to parent and community participation in their local schools in seven Latin American countries. Spanish.

April 1, 2005: Women on the Verge: Corporate Power in Latin America (PDF)
By Sylvia Maxfield

April 1, 2005: PREAL Working Paper No. 32: El movimiento a favor de los estándares en los Estados Unidos (PDF)
By Gilbert A. Valverde
This paper seeks to answer questions such as “how have we arrived at the current scenario where curricular policy is dominated by standards and accountability systems? What types of education problems can be resolved with standards? What are the arguments in favor of and against standards? What lessons have we learned through the United States’ experience with standards that might be applied to Latin American countries? Spanish.

March 7, 2005: Uso e Impacto de la Información Educativa en América Latina.
By Santiago Cueto
This publication presents the results and final reports from the first competition of research proposals which addressed the theme “How is empirical information used for – and what impact does it have on – the improvement of education systems in Latin America?” Spanish.

March 1, 2005: Agenda for the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
This report—Agenda for the Americas—was produced by a special Inter-American Dialogue task force on U.S. policy in the Western Hemisphere. We assembled the task force in response to the growing concerns of our members that U.S. policy in the Americas is not adequately serving the interests of either the United States or the nations of Latin America and the Caribbean. Our objective was to identify policies and approaches that would enable Washington to take better advantage of the enormous opportunities for mutually beneficial cooperation with the governments of the region.

February 1, 2005: Toward a New Social Contract (PDF)
By Nancy Birdsall and Rachel Menezes
This policy brief proposes a new job-based social contract, geared to the aspirations of the region’s vast majority of near-poor “middle” households, whose participation is key to achieving growth and strengthening democracy. This contract would emphasize tough and transparent fiscal management; make taxes and expenditures more progressive to “grow” a new middle-class; protect job mobility and workers’ rights (rather than jobs); and emphasize access to global markets, including through regional collaboration.

January 31, 2005: Nuestros Niños Necesitan Aprender Más y Mejor: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Bolivar 2004 (PDF)
By PREAL/Corpeducación/Fundación Corona/Empresarios por la Educación
Produced in conjunction with partners Corpeducación, Fundación Corona, Empresarios por la Educación, Fundación Mamonal, and the Cartagena Chamber of Commerce, this report card evaluates the state and progress of key education indicators (including test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in the Colombian department of Bolivar and its capital city Cartagena over the last ten years. Spanish.

January 1, 2005: Tranforming Socialist Economies: Lessons for Cuba and Beyond (PDF)
By Shahid Javed Burki and Daniel P. Erikson
Transforming Socialist Economies: Lessons for Cuba and Beyond seeks to explore how diverse governments have tackled change in China, Vietnam, Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia, and draw lessons for Cuba's future. The result is a provocative study that combines political and economic analysis to illustrate the detours, obstacles, and alternatives facing countries on the road from communism to capitalism.

December 13, 2004: Pasando Balance: Informe de Progreso Educativo, República Dominicana 2006 (PDF)
By PREAL/EDUCA
This report, produced in conjunction with national partners Plan República Dominicana and EDUCA (Acción para la Educación Básica, INC) offers an independent evaluation of the education system in the Dominican Republic over the last 10 years. The report provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in the Dominican Republic. Spanish.

December 1, 2004: PREAL Working Paper No. 31: Construcción de la profesión docente en América Latina. Tendencias, temas y debates (PDF)
By Denise Vaillant
This study provides a panorama of the teaching profession in Latin America, discussing themes, debates, main positions, and research voids in an attempt to identify priorities for education policy. Spanish.

October 11, 2004: Etnicidad, Raza, Género y Educación en América Latina (PDF)
By Donald R. Winkler and Santiago Cueto
This book brings together much of the recent empirical research on the effects of race, ethnicity and gender on educational outcomes in countries with large indigenous or afro-descendent populations. Spanish.

October 1, 2004: Free Trade in the Americas: Getting There from Here (PDF)
By Carla Hills, Jaime Zabludovsky, Jeffrey J. Schott, Marcos Sawaya Jank, and Zuleika Arashiro
The Inter-American Dialogue invited three scholars of trade policy—from the United States, Mexico, and Brazil—to present their views on the prospects for a successful Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). In her introduction to the report, Dialogue vice-chair Carla Hills explains the stakes involved: a successful FTAA could bring opportunity and enhanced prosperity to the region, strengthening hemispheric stability and advancing our economic, social, and security interests.

September 6, 2004: Calidad y Cobertura, Asuntos Pendientes: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Atlántico 2004 (PDF)
By PREAL/Corpoeducación/Fundación Corona/Empresarios por la Educación/Baranquilla Chamber of Commerce
Produced in conjunction with partners Corpeducación, Fundación Corona, Empresarios por la Educación, and Baranquilla’s Chamber of Commerce, this report card evaluates the state and progress of key education indicators (including test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in the Colombian department of Atlántico and its capital city Baranquilla over the last 10 years. Spanish.

September 6, 2004: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Nicaragua 2004 (PDF)
By PREAL/EDUQUEMOS
This report, produced in conjunction with national partner EDUQUEMOS, provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in Nicaragua. Spanish.

August 9, 2004: Grandes Avances, pero Insuficientes: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Antioquia 2004 (PDF)
By PREAL/Corpeducación/Fundación Corona/Empresarios por la Educación/Proantioquia
Produced in conjunction with partners Corpeducación, Fundación Corona, Empresarios por la Educación, and Proantioquia, this report card evaluates the state and progress of key education indicators (including test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in the Colombian department of Antioquia and its capital city Medellín. Spanish.

August 2, 2004: PREAL Working Paper No. 30: Education Decentralization and Accountability Relationships in Latin America (PDF)
By Emanuela di Gropello
This paper analyzes the status, impact and on-going challenges of decentralization reforms in the education sector in Latin America, making use of the accountability framework developed by the World Bank’s 2004 World Development Report. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

August 1, 2004: Constitutional Provisions and Legal Actions Related to Discrimination and Afro-Descendant Populations in Latin America (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
A report that showcases legislation that affects Afro-descendants in Latin America and the Caribbean, and discusses the international conventions and accords that governments have signed regarding racism, racial discrimination and social exclusion.

July 12, 2004: Maestros en América Latina: Nuevas Perspectivas Sobre su Formación y Desempeño
By PREAL
This book includes the works presented at two international seminars regarding the teaching profession in Latin America. Spanish.

July 1, 2004: Advancing the Legislative Debate on the Central American Free Trade Agreement (PDF)
By Eric Jacobstein
Conference Report - On May 8, 2004, the Inter-American Dialogue, in cooperation with the Inter-American Development Bank, brought together U.S. and Central American legislators in San Salvador to discuss the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA). This rapporteur’s report highlights the key arguments made by participants. Most favored some sort of free trade agreement between the United States and Central America—but many argued that the agreement, as written, lacked sufficient safeguards for labor rights.

June 1, 2004: Turning Point in Colombia?: Rapporteur’s Report, Colombia Working Group (PDF)
By Vinay Jawahar
This paper, written by Vinay Jawahar of the Inter-American Dialogue, reviews some of the main insights and perspectives that emerged at a working group meeting in November 2003 in Washington, DC. The rapporteur's report captures the freewheeling give-and-take among participants on a range of issues related to Colombia's armed conflict, including the government's approach in pursuit of peace and justice. Jawahar acknowledges the important gains made under the Uribe administration in the security area, but also identifies grounds for concern.

May 3, 2004: Buenos Avances, pero nos Falta Mejorar: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Caldas 2004 (PDF)
By PREAL/Corpeducación/Fundación Corona/Empresarios por la Educación/Fundación Luker
Produced in conjunction with partners Corpeducación, Fundación Corona, Empresarios por la Educación, and Fundación Luker, this report card evaluates the state and progress of key education indicators (including test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in the Colombian department of Caldas and its capital city Manizales. Spanish.

May 1, 2004: Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report on the Seventh Annual Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) Conference on September 10-11, 2003.

April 1, 2004: PREAL Working Paper No. 29: Does External Accountability Affect Student Outcomes? A Cross-State Analysis (PDF)
By Martin Carnoy and Susana Loeb
This paper examines the relationship between an increase in responsibility for results and improvements in student achievement in the United States. It concludes that increased accountability can improve student achievement. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

April 1, 2004: Women and Global Leadership (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue, International Center for Research on Women
Report of the Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas.

March 31, 2004: Mexican Hometown Associations and Development Opportunities (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
International migration significantly influences the politics and economics of many countries today. Migration and worker remittances, in particular, support economic growth in sending countries all over the world. Through remittances, migration has created new opportunities for social and economic change in rural areas. However, remittances are only part of a broader phenomenon of transnationalism. Transnational immigration networks are contributing to the integration of countries into the global economy, demonstrated through various levels of economic interconnectedness, including immigrantbased donations, small and large investments, trade, tourism, and unilateral transfers.

March 8, 2004: Tenemos que Seguir Avanzando: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Casanare 2004 (PDF)
By PREAL/Corpeducación/Fundación Corona/Empresarios por la Educación/BP Exploration Company/Ecopetrol
Produced in conjunction with partners Corpeducación, Fundación Corona, Empresarios por la Educación, BP Exploration Company, and Ecopetrol, this report card evaluates the state and progress of key education indicators (including test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in the Colombian department of Casanare over the last ten years. Spanish.

February 9, 2004: Mejorar, un Reto Inaplazable: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Valle del Cauca 2004 (PDF)
By PREAL/Corpeducación/Fundación Corona/Empresarios por la Educación/Harinera del Valle
Produced in conjunction with partners Corpeducación, Fundación Corona, Empresarios por la Educación, and Harinera del Valle, this report card evaluates the state and progress of key education indicators (including test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in the Colombian department of Valle de Cauca and its capital city Cali over the last ten years. Spanish.

January 2, 2004: Determinants of Remittance Transfers: The Case of the Dominican Republic (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Draft research notes on determinants of remittances project. What factors influence an immigrant’s decision to remit? Some analysts have suggested that foreign exchange and interest rates affect an immigrant’s decision, others argue that the conditions in the household are the main determinant. Overall, however, there are very few studies analyzing these relationships. Neither household nor macro-economic data has been implemented to systematically assess the determinants of remittances (which are different to those of migration).

January 1, 2004: Oportunidades y Estrategias para el desarrollo y el crecimiento a través de las remesas familiares a la República Dominicana (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Work presented to the Remittances Taskforce. Las remesas familiares han surgido como un nuevo fenómeno en las relaciones internacionales y están reconfigurando el pensamiento sobre el desarrollo en muchos países, así como la política estatal y gubernamental. Cuatro temas que influyen el análisis de las remesas han sido el efecto en el hogar, el costo de intermediación y su naturaleza financiera, el impacto macro-económico y su efecto de demostración en otras áreas económicas.

January 1, 2004: All in the Family (PDF)
By IAD Task Force on Remittances
No one today questions the significance of remittance flows for the future of Latin America and the Caribbean. Indeed, it is hard to exaggerate their importance. Having expanded from about $10 billion a year in 1996 to $32 billion last year, a strong case can be made that remittances are now Latin America’s most important resource.

December 15, 2003: Oportunidades y Estrategias para el desarrollo y el crecimiento a través de las remesas familiares a Nicaragua (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Las remesas familiares han surgido como un nuevo fenómeno en las relaciones internacionales y están reconfigurando el pensamiento sobre el desarrollo en muchos países, así como la política estatal y gubernamental. Cuatro temas que influyen el análisis de las remesas han sido el efecto en el hogar, el costo de intermediación y su naturaleza financiera, el impacto macro-económico y su efecto de demostración en otras áreas económicas.

December 1, 2003: Bridging the Divide: Toward Consensus on Free Trade in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
To help further discussion on the future of the FTAA, the Inter-American Dialogue organized a one-day conference, held on November 23, 2002, entitled “Bridging the Divide: Toward Consensus on Free Trade in the Americas.” Its purpose was to analyze a small number of “deal-breaking” issues that stand in the way of a successful FTAA and to try to come up with solutions to these barriers.

December 1, 2003: PREAL Working Paper No. 28: Sindicatos docentes y gobiernos: Conflictos y diálogos en torno a la Reforma Educativa en América Latina (PDF)
By Mariano Palamidessi
This document is based on case studies on techers' unions in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Peru, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. Portuguese and Spanish.

September 1, 2003: Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of the Sixth Annual Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) Conference on September 6, 2002.

September 1, 2003: Entre el Avance y el Retroceso: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Colombia 2003 (PDF)
By PREAL/Fundación Corona/Corpoeducación
This report, produced in conjunction with national partners Fundación Corona and Corpoeducación, provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in Colombia. Spanish.

August 4, 2003: Time to Act: A Report Card on Education in Central America and the Dominican Republic, 2003 (PDF)
By PREAL
This report follows up progress made in addressing Central American and the Dominican Republic’s serious educational deficiencies, based on the recommendations presented by PREAL’s Task Force on Education Reform in Central America in Tomorrow is Too Late. English and Spanish.

August 1, 2003: A New Approach: Álvaro Uribe's Democratic Security Project (PDF)
By Fernando Cepeda Ulloa
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written by noted Colombian political analyst and diplomat Fernando Cepeda Ulloa in April 2003, examines the leadership style and policy agenda pursued by Colombian president Álvaro Uribe based on the first eight months of his administration. Cepeda, who currently works as an independent consultant and teaches at the University of los Andes in Bogotá, argues that Uribe is a committed reformer who is practicing a different, and welcome, form of Colombian politics. Although Cepeda recognizes the merits of Uribe’s approach, he is nonetheless sensitive to possible costs for Colombia’s democratic institutional development.

August 1, 2003: PREAL Working Paper No. 27: Teacher Pay in 12 Latin American Countries: How does teacher pay compare to other professions, what determines teacher pay, and who are the teachers? (PDF)
By Xiaoyan Liang
Using household survey data from 12 Latin American countries, this paper addresses three questions: 1) how does teacher’s remuneration compare to analogous counterparts in the labor market? 2) What factors determine teachers’ pay and how does their contribution to the pay structure differ from the pay structure of non-teachers? And 3) if persons with similar characteristics are paid less when they teach than when they take other jobs, why do they choose the teaching profession? English and Spanish.

August 1, 2003: Access to Information in the Americas. (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Also available in Spanish.

August 1, 2003: Acceso a la Información Pública en las Américas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Also available in English.

August 1, 2003: PREAL Working Paper No 27: Remuneración de los docentes en 12 países latinoamericanos: Quiénes son los docentes, factores que determinan su remuneración y comparación con otras profesiones (PDF)
By Xiaoyan Liang
A partir de los datos de encuestas a familias realizadas en 12 países latinoamericanos, en este informe se intentan responder tres preguntas de investigación: (1) ¿cuál es el nivel de la remuneración de los docentes en comparación con contrapartes análogas del mercado laboral?, (2) ¿cuáles son los factores que determinan la remuneración de los docentes y cómo difiere su contribución a la estructura salarial en comparación con el sector no docente? y (3) si es cierto que personas con similares características ganan menos cuando se dedican a la docencia que cuando se desempeñan en otras áreas, ¿por qué ingresan a la profesión docente?: ¿quiénes son los docentes?

July 1, 2003: Álvaro Uribe: Dissident (PDF)
By Eduardo Pizarro Leongómez
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written by Colombian political analyst and professor Eduardo Pizarro in May 2003, explores the prospects and limitations of moving toward negotiations with Colombia’s armed actors, some eight months into the administration of President Álvaro Uribe Vélez. Pizarro, who has a long association with the Institute for Political Studies and International Relations at the National University of Colombia in Bogotá and is currently a visiting scholar at Princeton University, assesses some of the security measures and diplomatic initiatives undertaken at the outset of the Uribe government.

June 2, 2003: Informe de Progreso Educativo PERU (PDF)
By PREAL/GRADE

June 1, 2003: Es Hora de Actuar (PDF)
By PREAL
EnMañana es Muy Tarde, 2000, identificamos cuatro factores claves de la problemática educativa regional: (1) El manejo de la educación a través de instituciones estatales centralistas, burocráticas y frecuentemente politizadas, que son ineficientes y suelen frenar el ritmo de los cambios; (2) La inversión insuficiente e inequitativa en educación; (3) El deterioro de la profesión docente, producto en parte de la desvinculación entre las remuneraciones y el desempeño; y (4) Estándares educativos y sistemas de evaluación insuficientemente consolidados, que impiden conocer el desempeño de los agentes educativos y el impacto de las políticas.

April 1, 2003: PREAL Working Paper No. 26: Las pruebas internacionales de aprendizaje en América Latina y su impacto en la calidad de la educación: Criterios para guiar futuras aplicaciones (PDF)
By Guillermo Ferrer and Patricia Arregui
Over the past years, different international and regional organizations have recommended that Latin American countries participate in international achievement tests. This paper analyzes the implications of such participation and suggests that international tests may help to improve management and education processes. Spanish.

March 10, 2003: Buenas Prácticas para Mejorar la Educación en América Latina (PDF)
By Ana María de Andraca
This publication offers a synthesis of 119 educational programs and projects that demonstrate the direction of the efforts made by different countries to improve their education, and whose attempts to improve the quality and equity of education have brought about positive results. Spanish.

March 10, 2003: Changes in the Atmosphere? Increase of Remittances, Price Decline and New Challenges (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Migrant remittances continue to play an important role in many Latin American countries. The reasons are not purely economic, but are tied also to the extent of transnational links established between the migrant community and the home country. Increased market competition, as well as the initiatives of international development organizations in partnership with migrant communities, have promoted development and reduced transfer costs.

March 1, 2003: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Perú 2003 (PDF)
By PREAL
El informe ha sido preparado por GRADE (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo) y provee desde una perspectiva independiente, información confiable y actual sobre el progreso educativo en el país para una audiencia no especializada. El informe se preparó en base a la información estadística disponible, a la revisión de documentos e investigaciones recientes y a entrevistas con distintas personas relacionadas con el sector educativo del país. La elaboración de este informe ha sido posible en buena medida, gracias al trabajo desarrollado por la Oficina de Planificación Estratégica y la Unidad de Medición de la Calidad Educativa del Ministerio de Educación, y a diversas investigaciones hechas en GRADE a lo largo del último decenio, marco de referencia de este reporte.

February 10, 2003: Challenges and Opportunities of Marketing Remittances to Cuba (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Over the last eight years, Cuba has experienced a significant inflow of foreign currency from Cubans residing in the United States. Cuban Americans both send remittances in cash or in kind and/or visit Cuba as tourists. Official counts suggest that at least three quarters of a billion remittance dollars arrived in Cuba in 2000, 90 percent of it coming from the U.S. Cuban diaspora. In fact, this number is likely to be a significant undercount and the accurate figure is likely to be nearer a billion dollars.

February 1, 2003: The Troubled Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
This year’s Inter-American Dialogue report analyzes the troubling political and economic developments in Latin America and the Caribbean over the past two years. Since our last report was released in November 2000, we have watched circumstances in nearly every country in the region deteriorate. Growth has come to a standstill, foreign investment has dropped sharply, and unemployment and poverty have worsened.

January 1, 2003: Afro-Descendants in Latin America: How Many? (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
In June 2000, the Dialogue joined several other institutions working on issues of race in the Americas to form the Inter-Agency Consultation on Race in Latin America. Against, this backgrope, this report intends to disseminate information on Afro-Latin populations, and recent program activities regarding Afro-Latin Americans.

December 2, 2002: PREAL Working Paper No. 25: Formación de Formadores. Estado de la Práctica (PDF)
By Denise Vaillant
This paper describes the most recent studies about policies and strategies that Latin American and Caribbean countries have adopted regarding training teachers, analyzes the problems teacher trainers face, and identifies various institutions that train teachers, providing an overview of the pedagological training that teacher trainers receive. Portuguese and Spanish.

November 1, 2002: Advancing Democracy Through Press Freedom in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
This report draws on the efforts of a cumulative process—three meetings over the course of three years, with the final one taking place in Miami in April 2002— that sought to generate a series of recommendations that would help advance press freedom in the Americas.

August 5, 2002: El Reto es Avanzar: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Panamá 2002 (PDF)
By PREAL/CoSPAE
This report, prepared in conjunction with national partner CoSPAE (Consejo del Sector Privado para la Asistencia Educacional) provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in Panama. Spanish.

August 1, 2002: Doing Something in Colombia (PDF)
By Eduardo Posada Carbó
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written in July 2002 by Colombian historian and journalist Eduardo Posada Carbó, addresses the challenges and dilemmas that the Colombia situation poses for the international community during the administration of Alvaro Uribe. Posada, currently a research associate at the Latin American Centre of St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford, in the United Kingdom, examines common misperceptions held about the Colombian conflict by key actors and argues forcefully that strengthening legitimate state authority should be the chief focus of an international effort to turn around the country’s decline.

August 1, 2002: PREAL Working Paper No. 24: La educación primaria en América Latina:La agenda inconclusa (PDF)
By Laurence Wolff, Ernesto Schiefelbein, and Paulina Schiefelbein
After more than a decade of efforts to expand and improve primary education, what have been the results? How many more years are necessary for the region to achieve quality primary education for all children? This documents attempts to answer these and other questions, as well as evaluate more systematically the extent to which education improved between 1990 and 2000. Portuguese and Spanish.

July 1, 2002: The Prospects for Peace in Colombia: Lessons from Recent Experience (PDF)
By Rafael Pardo Rueda
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written in February 2002 by Rafael Pardo—former Colombian defense minister who was elected senator in March 2002—attempts to refocus the nature of the Colombian conflict and argue that the central issue has to do with access to and distribution of power. The paper assesses the approach to peace pursued by the Pastrana Administration and discusses its implications for the next Colombian government.

June 3, 2002: Informe de Progreso Educativo, El Salvador 2002 (PDF)
By PREAL/Centro Alfa
This report, prepared by PREAL and Centro Alfa provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in El Salvador. Spanish.

June 1, 2002: Reflections on the Colombian Conflict (PDF)
By Daniel Mack and Victoria Wigodzky
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written by Daniel Mack and Victoria Wigodzky of the Inter-American Dialogue,highlights some of the key points and observations made at a session of the working group convened in Washington, D.C., on February 8 and 9, 2002. Group consensus was not one of our objectives, and the modus operandi was a freewheeling give-and-take among participants. We sought to identify areas of agreement and disagreement. The discussions were often intense and spirited, and always frank.

June 1, 2002: Colombia: Negotiate, But What? (PDF)
By Joaquín Villalobos
Andean Working Paper - This paper, written in early February 2002 by Joaquín Villalobos—former Salvadoran guerrilla leader currently at Oxford University—sets out some fresh and original ideas for moving toward a peaceful settlement of Colombia’s conflict. It seeks to reflect on and assess the experience with peace talks during the Pastrana administration, and yield relevant lessons, with an eye toward offering some guidance for the next government in Bogotá.

May 22, 2002: Nº 21: Autonomia Escolar na Nicarágua: restabelecendo o contrato social(*) (PDF)
By Gustavo Arcia e Humberto Belli

May 1, 2002: Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of the Fifth Annual Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) Conference on September 9, 2001.

May 1, 2002: PREAL Working Paper No. 23: Carreras, incentivos y estructuras salariales docentes (PDF)
By Alejandro Morduchowicz
This paper analyzes salary structures and the teaching profession in Latin America and reviews negotiations with teacher representatives in several school districts in the United States that have incentive programs, salary scales, or other plans to modify the salary structure of teachers. Portuguese and Spanish.

April 1, 2002: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Guatemala 2002 (PDF)
By PREAL/CIEN
This report, prepared in conjunction with national partner CIEN (Centro de Investigaciones Económicas Nacionales) provides reliable and up-to-date information on progress on key education indicators (test results, enrollment, staying in school, equity, accountability, investment in primary and secondary education, the teaching profession, standards, and assessment systems) in Guatemala. Spanish.

April 1, 2002: Informe de Progreso Educativo, Honduras 2002 (PDF)
By PREAL/FEREMA
Este trabajo fue preparado por la Fundación para la Educación Ricardo Ernesto Maduro Andreu, FEREMA, en el año 2002. Proporciona información actualizada y califica el avance educativo en el país, para ponerla a disposición de los diversos actores encargados de mejorar la educación.

March 4, 2002: Private Education and Public Policy in Latin America (PDF)
By Laurence Wolff, Pablo Gonzalez, and Juan Carlos Navarro
This book seeks to help clarify the debate about private education in Latin America. English and Spanish.

March 4, 2002: Empresários e Educação no Brasil (PDF)
By Helena Bomeny and Macela Pronko
This book describes the results of the first stage of investigation into the relationship between businesspeople and education in Brazil, and addresses the significance of a speech which evidences the increased involvement of businesspeople in the improvement of education in the country. Portuguese.

March 1, 2002: PREAL Working Paper No. 22: ¿Cómo presentan sus resultados los sistemas nacionales de evaluación educativa en América Latina? (PDF)
By Pedro Ravela
This paper discusses how governments report student assessment results and makes recommendations for doing so more effectively. Portuguese and Spanish.

January 1, 2002: PREAL Working Paper Nº 20 Os Próximos Passos: Como Avançar na Avaliação de Aprendizagens na América Latina? (PDF)
By Pedro Ravela (editor), Richard Wolfe, Gilbert Valverde e Juan Manuel Esquivel
This document analyzes the effects and technical implications of assessment systems on education policy. It recognizes that Latin America has made a large step forward by implementing national assessment systems, and discusses the need to evaluate recent experience and consider alternative ways to develop and redesign their systems.

December 3, 2001: PREAL Working Paper No. 21: La autonomía escolar en Nicaragua: restableciendo el contrato social (PDF)
By Gustavo Arcia and Humberto Belli
This document describes the school autonomy program in Nicaragua and discusses some of the challenges school autonomy presents, with the hope that in responding to these challenges, sustained improvements in public education coverage and quality can be achieved. Available in Portuguese and Spanish.

December 1, 2001: N°21 La autonomía escolar en Nicaragua: restableciendo el contrato social (PDF)
By Gustavo Arcia y Humberto Belli
En este documento se describe el programa de autonomía escolar de Nicaragua y se plantean algunos desafíos para la autonomía escolar, con la esperanza de que, al responder a estos desafíos, se obtendrá un mejoramiento sostenido de la cobertura y la calidad de la educación pública.

September 1, 2001: Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of the Fourth Annual Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) Conference on September 9, 2000.

August 1, 2001: PREAL Working Paper No. 20: Los próximos pasos. ¿Cómo avanzar en la evaluación de aprendizajes en América Latina? (PDF)
By Pedro Ravela
This document analyzes the effects and technical implications of assessment systems on education policy. It recognizes that Latin America has made a large step forward by implementing national assessment systems, and discusses the need to evaluate recent experience and consider alternative ways to develop and redesign their systems. Portuguese and Spanish.

July 2, 2001: Politics Matter: A Dialogue of Women Political Leaders (PDF)
By Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Dialogue, International Center for Research on Women
A report on the discussions regarding women’s leadership from the meeting, “Politics Matter: A Dialogue of Women Political Leaders,” held on November 13, 2000.

June 1, 2001: Lagging Behind: A Report Card on Education in Latin America, 2001 (PDF)
By PREAL
This is the first report card on education in Latin America. It offers the best information available on aspects of education—access, quality, and equity—that are crucial to improving learning. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

May 1, 2001: PREAL Working Paper No. 19: Sindicalismo Docente y Reforma Educativa en la América Latina de los 90 (PDF)
By Guillermina Tiramonti
This paper analyzes the relationship between unions and the State in different Latin American countries, focusing specifically on education at a time when countries’ national education systems are changing and reforming. Portuguese and Spanish.

April 1, 2001: Women and Power in the Americas: A Report Card (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue, International Center for Research on Women

April 1, 2001: Advancing Women's Rights in the Americas: Achievements and Challenges (PDF)
By Mala N. Htun

March 12, 2001: Economía Política de las Reformas Educativas en América Latina (PDF)
By Sergio Martinic and Marcela Pardo
This book presents the discussions, comments and conclusions from the International Seminar on Policy and Education Reforms in Latin America, which was organized by PREAL and CIDE. Spanish.

February 1, 2001: Breaking the Labor-Trade Deadlock (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
A Joint Publication of the Trade Policy Group of the Inter-American Dialogue and the Economic Reform Project of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace -- Given the contentious nature of the trade and labor standards debate and its centrality to future progress on both trade negotiations and worker rights, the Dialogue's Trade Policy Group (TPG) decided to undertake a review of this issue as its first project. This working paper is the result. Four members of the group—Scott Otteman, Phil Potter, Staci Warden, and Sidney Weintraub—are the principal authors of the paper.

January 1, 2001: Washington Contentious: Economic Policies for Social Equality in Latin America (PDF)
By Nancy Birdsall, Augusto de la Torre, & Rachel Menezes
Findings of the Commission on Economic Reform in Unequal Latin American Societies sponsored by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Inter-American Dialogue

December 1, 2000: A Time for Decisions: U.S. Policy in the Western Hemisphere (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
This Inter-American Dialogue report is addressed to the next president of the United States. It provides our assessment of recent developments in Latin America and the Caribbean, discusses the key challenges for U.S. policy in the region, and sets forth a series of concrete recommendations for action by the new administration.

November 1, 2000: Latin American Women Leadership Study (PDF)
By Gallup Poll Report.

October 2, 2000: PREAL Working Paper No. 18: Las escuelas aceleradas: Una década de evolución (PDF)
By Henry M. Levin
This document evaluates the first decade of Accelerated Schools, which started as two pilot schools in 1986 and grew to approximately 1,000 schools in 1996. This paper considers lessons learned and how they might be applied on a large scale to other schools. Portuguese and Spanish.

October 1, 2000: Toward Greater Peace and Security in Colombia: Forging a Constructive U.S. Policy (PDF)
By Bob Graham, Brent Scowcroft, and Michael Shifter
This report sets out broad parameters for a sustained and constructive U.S. strategy toward Colombia, taking into full account the country’s massive problems and moving beyond the current emphasis on the drug problem. It argues that Colombia is experiencing pervasive lawlessness, insecurity, and corruption; U.S. policy should respond to these conditions, and most importantly, seek to build greater peace and security in that country. As the report points out, drugs are but one piece of larger, more complex puzzle that needs to be tackled on all fronts, including curbing demand and consumption of illegal drugs in the United States. U.S. policy must move beyond drugs and include military, political, and socioeconomic dimensions. The report also maintains that the United States should be pursuing a more multilateral approach with European and Latin American allies, with Canada and Japan, and with international institutions and fora.

August 1, 2000: Tomorrow is Too Late, 2000 (PDF)
By PREAL
This report card describes the current state of education in Central America and makes recommendations that constitute a point of departure for forming a national and regional consensus on education reform. English and Spanish

June 1, 2000: The Developmental Role of Remittances in U.S. Latino Communities and in Latin American Countries (PDF)
By Lindsey Lowell and Rodolfo O. de la Garza
For international migrants seeking employment in the United States, the desire to remit a portion of their earnings home is a time-honored motivator. Although the basic facts surrounding remittances to Mexico and Central America have changed little in recent decades, the flow of money southward from the United States has taken on significant new features. Since the 1980s, remittances have averaged 26 percent annual growth in the countries of focus in this project, i.e., Mexico, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Colombia. Today, officially recorded remittances to these countries total $8 billion.

June 1, 2000: Latino Hometown Associations as Agents of Development in Latin America (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
In this paper, Dr. Manuel Orozco examines Latino hometown associations (HTAs) and their considerable growth over the past decade. These organizations are formed by groups of immigrants hailing from the same towns. While their focus has been primarily on supporting the immigrant community in the United States, in recent years a growing number of HTAs have begun to send collective remittances back home for community development projects such as paving roads, building schools, and buying ambulances. Dr. Orozco studies HTAs formed by Domincans, Guatemalans, Mexicans, and Salvadorans in several cities in the United States. He concludes that there are several characteristics common to almost all HTAs, including their informal and voluntary structure, sporadic relationships with municipalities in the hometowns, and small economic base.

June 1, 2000: Remittances and Markets: New Players and Practices (PDF)
By Manuel Orozco
Dr. Manuel Orozco examines the dynamic market in the United States and in Latin America that surrounds remittances. Waves of Latin American immigrants have entered the United States during the last few decades. Unlike immigration studies in the past that concentrate on the senders and receivers of remittances, Dr. Orozco explores the new actors and activities emerging with the surge of remittances, actors that have also had direct and indirect impacts on community development. These players include money transmission companies, Latino nonprofit associations in the United States, government agencies, and international organizations. Dr. Orozco concludes that as competition between businesses continues to increase, more agents become involved in the transmission of remittances, and the financial services sector is regulated, immigrants and their communities of origin will reap greater benefits than they do presently.

April 17, 2000: The Development of Home Town Associations in the United States and the Use of Social Remittances in Mexico (PDF)
By Rafael Alarcón
Money remittances between the United States and Mexico are in the process of evolving from the province of individuals and households toward the increasing involvement of hometown associations (HTAs). These associations are based on the social networks established by community members of the same rural locality of origin in Mexico. The members of these associations, commonly known as "clubs," seek to promote the well-being of their community in both the United States and Mexico by raising money to fund public works and social projects. These associations pay particular attention to the needs of low-income persons who live in Mexico.

April 3, 2000: PREAL Working Paper No. 17: Education Decentralization in Latin America: The Effects on the Quality of Schooling (PDF)
By Donald R. Winkler and Alec Ian Gershberg
This paper analyzes from a comparative perspective experiences with decentralized education systems in Latin America and other parts of the world and evaluates the effect that these decentralized systems have had on the quality of education. English, Portuguese and Spanish.

March 1, 2000: The Americas at the Millennium: A Time of Testing
By Inter-American Dialogue
This is the Inter-American Dialogue’s tenth comprehensive policy report on Western Hemisphere affairs. It is the second report issued by the Sol M. Linowitz Forum, which brings our entire membership together in plenary session approximately once every two years. In Forum discussions, Dialogue members and guests probe their differences and seek to forge a common agenda, identify cooperative solutions to regional problems, and develop consensus proposals for actions.

January 3, 2000: PREAL Working Paper No. 16: Educación: Escenarios de Futuro. Nuevas Tecnologías y Sociedad de la Información (PDF)
By José Joaquín Brunner
This document analyzes the impact of new information technologies implemented in educational systems. Spanish.

January 1, 2000: Sending Money Home... for now: Remittances and Immigrant Adaptation in the United States (PDF)
By Louis DeSipio
In the Fall of 1997, the Inter-American Dialogue and the Tomás Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) initiated a project examining the potential contribution of remittances to social and economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean — as well as to the economic and social wellbeing of Latino communities in the United States. This paper is one of a series of working papers produced as part of the project.

January 1, 2000: Do Government Programs "Crowd in" Remittances?
By J. Edward Taylor
In this paper, Dr. J. Edward Taylor of the University of California, Davis looks at the remittance behavior of Mexican immigrant households in the US, focusing on the impact of US transfer payments on remittances. The analysis seeks to answer the question of whether US governmental supplements increase monies sent home. Using data from two Mexican migrant communities, Taylor concludes that welfare and other means-tested government programs, such as Food Stamps and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), do not appear to subsidize households in Mexico. On average, however, immigrant families do share non-means-tested transfers, such as Social Security, with relatives in Mexico.

November 1, 1999: The Americas at the Millennium: A Time of Testing
By Inter-American Dialogue
Our report focuses on the failure so far of most democratic governments in Latin America and the Caribbean to satisfy the demands of their citizens for steadier and faster economic growth, accelerated social progress, full political participation, and greater personal security. We argue that democratic politics and market economics are on trial across the region, and are at grave risk in some countries.

September 1, 1999: Andean Development Corporation Annual Conference on Trade and Investment in the Americas (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue
Report of the Second Annual Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) Conference. September 10-11, 1998.

September 1, 1999: PREAL Working Paper No. 15: Reformas Educativas en América Latina. Balance de una Década (PDF)
By Marcela Gajardo
This paper examines the characteristics and results of certain educational reforms that took place in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 1990s. Portuguese and Spanish.

July 1, 1999: PREAL Working Paper No. 14: Aspectos Políticos en la Implementación de las Reformas Educativas (PDF)
By Javier Corrales
This document summarizes some recent lessons learned in dealing with political obstacles to educational reform. Portuguese and Spanish.

June 1, 1999: The Future of Inter-American Relations (PDF)
By Jorge I. Domínguez
In this work I argue that Latin America, the Caribbean, and the United States matter to each other. Latin America and the Caribbean affect significant aspects of the quality of life in the United States, including the composition of the nation's people, the maintenance of public order, and the prospects for prosperity; there is no question, of course, about the high impact of the United States on the rest of the hemisphere.

December 31, 1998: 1998 Report of Activities (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
1998 was a productive year for the Dialogue. Three priorities guided our work - (1) making the Dialogue fully inter-American, (2) rejuvenating our core membership and participants in other networks, and (3) renewing the substantive agenda of issues we address to ensure the Dialogue is dealing with the most important challenges in fresh and creative ways.

December 1, 1998: Participación, Representación y Liderazgo Político de la Mujer en America Latina (PDF)
By Mala N. Htun
El surgimiento de movimientos de masas de mujeres en los años setenta y ochenta y su destacado papel en la lucha contra los regímenes autoritarios del continente crearon grandes expectativas de mejores oportunidades para la mujer una vez producido el retorno a la democracia.

October 1, 1998: PREAL Working Paper No. 12: Un Estudio sobre Principios y Prácticas de los Vouchers Educacionales (PDF)
By Edwin G. West
Analyzes the recent rise of voucher systems in light of applied experience in twenty countries, provinces, and states. Portuguese and Spanish.

September 1, 1998: The Andean Community and the United States: Trade and Investment Relations in the 1990s
By Inter-American Dialogue, Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF), the Organization of American States
This book is designed to generate interest in and expand knowledge of the Andean Community countries and their relation to the United States. As the countries of the Americas move toward economic integration, mutual information and understanding about the forces that drive our relationship become more and more important. This book explains the specific trade policy alternatives available to the Andean Community countries, and explores the different approaches to trade and integration in the Americas.

August 7, 1998: The Future at Stake, 1998 (PDF)
By PREAL
The report proposes a series of practical steps for addressing serious shortcomings in the region’s schools, based on the Task Force on Education, Equity, and Economic Competitiveness in Latin America and the Caribbean’s analysis of the state of education in the region. English and Spanish.

August 5, 1998: Columbia's Securtiy Predicament and Opportunities for Peace: Guidelines for U.S. Policy (PDF)
By Michael Shifter
Though Columbia confronts an unusually complicated and difficult set of political and security conditions, the country also faces an opportunity to begin to address its problems and to chart a productive and peaceful course.

June 1, 1998: Deportation of Criminal Aliens: A Geopolitical Perspectiv (PDF)
By Margaret H. Taylor and T. Alexander Aleinikoff
With the recent enactment of new immigration legislation and a significant increase in resources, the Immigration and Naturalization Service is deporting a record number of aliens who have been convicted of crimes in the United States. There is strong domestic support for this policy. The "speedy and effective deportation of criminal aliens is seen universally to be a worthy federal priority."

June 1, 1998: PREAL Working Paper No. 11: Educational Assessment Systems in Latin America: Current Progress and Future Challenges (PDF)
By Laurence Wolff
This report examines advances in educational assessments both at the international level and in six countries of Latin America. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

May 1, 1998: Migrant Remittances to Latin America: Reviewing the Literature (PDF)
By Deborah Waller Meyers
This paper is the Tomás Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI)’s first product. Deborah Waller Meyers reviews the research on the demographics of Latin American immigrants (including residential patterns, household characteristics, income and education); the relevant literature on the sources, uses, and impact of remittances on receiving countries; and numerous ideas and proposals for increasing the developmental significance of remittances both for Latino immigrants and their communities of origin. She concludes by noting that "there is little doubt that this topic interests many, that it has potential for further study, and that remittances can (and do) make important contributions to the development of certain countries." Yet, despite the interest, remittances "have not received the sustained attention required, either by governments, international financial institutions, local communities, or by the private sector."

April 1, 1998: Women's Rights and Opportunities in Latin America: Problems and Prospects (PDF)
By Mala N. Htun
This brief analyzes the status of women in Latin America in six thematic areas: political leadership, legal rights, domestic violence, health, economic opportunities, and education. These six areas correspond to the commitments made by governments at the 1994 Summit of the Americas in Miami, and Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas (WLCA).

April 1, 1998: The Future of Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: Promotion vs. Exposure (PDF)
By Tom Farer
Every complex institution has certain unwritten but clear understandings implicit in its practices - its common law, as it were - and embedded in its idiom.

April 1, 1998: El Futuro esta en Juego (PDF)
By PREAL
Existe consenso en cuanto a que la educación es vital para el desarrollo económico, el progreso social y el fortalecimiento de la democracia. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los niños de América Latina y el Caribe no tiene acceso hoy día a una educación adecuada y de buena calidad. En efecto, las escuelas latinoamericanas están en crisis. No están educando a los jóvenes de la región. En lugar de contribuir al progreso, están frenando a la región y su gente, con lo cual aumentan la pobreza, la desigualdad y el deficiente rendimiento de la economía. Los alumnos de las mejores escuelas privadas de la región muestran niveles de rendimiento comparables a los de las escuelas de los países industrializados. En contraste, los alumnos de las escuelas públicas muestran un rendimiento muy bajo en relación con cualquier estándar. El futuro de América Latina seguirá siendo sombrío hasta que todos sus niños tengan oportunidades reales de obtener una educación adecuada.

January 1, 1998: Comunicado Para la Seguna Cumbre de las Américas en Santiago, Chile (PDF)
By El Diálogo Interamericano y el Centro Internancional de Estudios Sobre la Mujer
La Conferencia de las Américas sobre liderazgo de la mujer (WLCA, en sus siglas en inglés) se complace en presentar sus recomendaciones sobre actividades encaminadas a brindar mejores oportunidades a las mujeres del hemisferio.

January 1, 1998: Immigration in U.S.-Mexican Relations (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue and the Brookings Institution
Few nations share as long a border as do mexico and the United States - certainly, no two nations with such disparate incomes and long tradition of both authorized and unauthorized migration.

January 1, 1998: Communiqué To the Second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue and the International Center for Reasearch on Women
The Women's Leadership Conference of the Americas (WLCA) is pleased to present its recommendations for action to enhance opportunities of women in the hemisphere. Our document points to a decided lack of progress on women's issues since the Miami Summit in December 1994.

January 1, 1998: PREAL Working Paper No. 10: América Latina y el Desafío del Tercer Milenio: Educación de Mejor Calidad con Menores Costos (PDF)
By Inés Aguerrondo
This paper discusses means of improving the quality of education in Latin America while reducing costs. Portuguese and Spanish.

December 31, 1997: 1997 Report of Activities (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
"The Inter-American Dialogue has been an important source of inspiration for my administration's effort to forge a new hemispheric partnership." - President Bill Clinton

November 3, 1997: PREAL Working Paper No. 9: Educational Decentralization: Issues and Challenges (PDF)
By E. Mark Hanson
This document addresses several critical issues related to educational decentralization. It concludes with a series of insights to guide policy makers, based on international experience. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

October 23, 1997: Building Multilateral Cooperation in the Americas: A New Direction for US Policy (PDF)
By The Stanley Foundation
Working with the Inter-American Dialogue, the Stanley Foundation brought together a diverse group of scholars and practitioners to discuss prospects for building multilateral cooperation between the United States and Latin America.

October 1, 1997: PREAL Working Paper No. 13: The Development of Internationally Comparable Indicators of Education Finance: The OECD Experience and its Implications for Mercosur (PDF)
By Stephen Barro
This paper considers what Mercosur needs to do to develop a system of internationally standardized education finance indicators and statistics capable of providing answers to these and many other such questions. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

August 22, 1997: The Challenge of Haiti's Future (PDF)
By Maz Manwaring, Donald E. Schulz, Robert Maguire, Peter Hakim, and Abigail Horn
On February 10-11, 1997, on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC, the U.S. Army War College, Georgetown University, and the Inter-American Dialogue cosponsored a major conference on "the Challenge of Haiti's Future". The symposium was held 29 months after the September 1994 U.S./U.N. intervention to return the democratically elected government of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, about a year after the peaceful presidential transition from Aristide to his chosen successor, Rene Preval, and only a few months before the scheduled departure of U.N. peacekeepers from Haiti in mid-1997.

August 1, 1997: PREAL Working Paper No. 8: Education Reform in Chile: Context, Content, and Implementation (PDF)
By Cristian Cox
This document examines the context and content of the education policies advocated by the Chilean government, the processes by which the changes have been implemented, and the main problems surrounding education policy reform. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

June 1, 1997: Peru: Challenges for the 21st Century (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
The longest hostage standoff in Latin American history one again put the spotlight on Peru, a country that has for many years attracted considerable international attention. It has done so for the high drama, and ups and downs, of its political violence -- as well as for the depth and seeming intractability of its economic crisis, and recent, impressive recovery. Peru, perhaps more so than most Latin American countries, tends to provoke intense, often passionate debate, sometimes testing assumptions and conceptions about the tensions between democratic governance and the effectiveness of governmental action.

June 1, 1997: Peru: Desafios para el siglo XXI (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
Tal vez más que la mayoría de países latinoamericanos, Peru tiende a provocar debates intensos, con frecuencia apasionados, que en ocasiones sirven para comprobar o descartar hipótesis y concepciones sobre las tensiones entre gobernabilidad democrática y eficacia de la acción gubernamental.

May 1, 1997: PREAL Working Paper No. 7: Education in Latin America: Problems and Challenges
By Jeffrey M. Puryear
This paper reviews the fundamental challenges for education systems—Access, Quality, and Equity—and of some of the factors behind those challenges to demonstrate the current state of affairs. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

April 1, 1997: La Agenda Intermamericana y Sistema de Gobierno Multilateral: La Organización de los Estados Americanos
By Grupo de Estudio del Diálogo Interamericano sobre el Sistema de Gobierno del Hemisferio Occidental
El presente estudio e informe se derivan de la convicción de que, en el contexto de un mundo interdependiente, un esfuerzo colectivo será la única forma de proveer a la región del marco de referencia y la fortaleza que se requieren para forjar un mejor destino en el futuro prometedor pero turbulento que se vislumbra.

April 1, 1997: The Inter-American Agenda and Multilateral Governance: The Organization of American States (PDF)
By Inter-American Dialogue Study
This study and this report derive from the conviction that, in the context of an interdependent world, only a collective effort can give the sovereign states of the region the framework and strength to shape a better destiny in the promising but turbulent days that lie ahead.

January 1, 1997: PREAL Working Paper No. 3: National Standards in Education: A “State of the Practice” (PDF)
By Diane Ravitch
This paper explores the promise of a nationwide system of standards and the problems surrounding their implementation. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

January 1, 1997: The Disturbing Underperformance of the Latin American Economics (PDF)
By Sebastian Edwards
During the last few years the economies of Latin America have undergone a remarkable transformation. Nations that had pursued protectionist policies for decades and sneered that the market system, have embraced structural reforms to integrate their economies with the rest of the world, stabilize their macroeconomic situation, deregulate business practices, and allow markets to allocate resources.

January 1, 1997: The Environment in U.S.-Cuba Relations: Recommendations for Cooperation (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
The Inter-American Dialogue's first effort to address environmental issues in U.S.-Cuban relations was to organize a small workshop of officials and leading environmental experts from the United States and Cuba in New York City in September 1994.

December 2, 1996: PREAL Working Paper No. 2: Reform of Vocational and Technical Education in Latin America (PDF)
By David N. Wilson
The existing vocational education and training systems, their deficiencies, and suggestions for improvement are the subject of this paper. English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

December 2, 1996: PREAL Working Paper No. 6: Enseñanza y Aprendizaje: En Busca de Nuevas Rutas (PDF)
By Gloria Calvo
This paper points out innovative instruction strategies in Latin America, focusing on experiences that favor active learning. It also suggests a reorganization of teaching methods as a step towards reaching effective learning. Portuguese and Spanish.

October 1, 1996: PREAL Working Paper No. 4: Salas de Clase Efectivas, Escuelas Efectivas: Plataforma de Investigación para una Reforma Educativa en América Latina (PDF)
By Robert E. Slavin
This paper describes the requisites for effective educational reform. Portuguese and Spanish.

October 1, 1996: Institutional Requirements for Western Hemisphere Free Trade (PDF)
By Sidney Weintraub
Despite an array of multilateral institutions, the inter-American system still had to improvise a structure for supporting the proposal to establish Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). Two competing institutional considerations emerged when the idea of hemispheric free trade came into play: the need for some orderly way for all the participants to jointly analyze the complex technical issues involved; and the quite powerful reluctance of governments to create any more institutions on top of those already in existence.

October 1, 1996: Balancing the Short- and Medium-Term Prospects for Reform and Democratic Development in Brazil (PDF)
By Bolívar Lamounier
Over the past sixteen months, Brazil has been making considerable headway in its pursuit of reform and democratic development.

October 1, 1996: Tensions and Dilemmas of Democratic Politics in Latin America (PDF)
By Michael Shifter
On March 24, 1996, Argentines marked the twenty-year anniversary of a coup that had brought military rule and repression to their country. Since then, the military has not forcibly replaced a civilian government in the hemisphere except in Haiti. In a region with a tradition of regular military takeovers and with textbook accounts and popular images of perennial instability, this is a stunning fact.

October 1, 1996: International Peace and Security in the Americas (PDF)
By Jorge I. Domínguez
The tragic war between Ecuador and Peru in early 1995 cost many lives and countless resources, and it shattered the hope that interstate warfare had been banished in this hemisphere. This war is a reminder that important security issues in the Americas were independent of the Cold War clash between superpowers.

July 1, 1996: PREAL Working Paper No. 5: Las Actuales Reformas Educativas en América Latina: Cuatro Actores, Tres Lógicas y Ocho Tensiones (PDF)
By Cecilia Braslavky and Gustavo Cosse
This paper characterizes the current educational scenario in Latin America. Identifies common contextual elements in the countries where reforms are being carried out and presents both obstacles and facilitating factors to reform. Portuguese and Spanish.

June 1, 1996: Brazil's Strategy for Trade Liberalization and Ecnomic Integration in the Western Hemisphere (PDF)
By Pedro da Motta Veiga
Two key factors explain Brazil's strategy for Western Hemisphere liberalization and economic integration. One is that Brazilian policymakers and opinion leaders believe their nation's regional trade strategy must be subservient to an overall multilateral approach to managing international economic relations. The second factor is the impact of Brazil's unilateral program of trade liberalization, begun in 1990, on the country's hemispheric trade policy. Finally, the paper reviews Brazil's policy toward hemispheric integration concluding with a reflection on the alternative paths to hemispheric integration, and emphasizing the eventual need for negotiations between the two major subregional trade groups headed by Brazil and the United States.

May 1, 1996: The Americas in 1997: Making Cooperation Work (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
The opportunity to establish an enduring framework of political and economic cooperation in the Americas is today within reach.

May 1, 1996: As Américas em 1997: Como Viabilizar a Cooperaç (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
A oportunidade para se establecer uma estrutura duradoura de cooperação política e econômica nas Américas está hoje ao nosso alcance.

March 1, 1996: Multilateralism and the Promotion and Defense of Democracy and Human Rights (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue Study Group on Western Hemispheric Governance
The proclamation of democracy and human rights as basic values of the American states is not new. But over the past decade a striking convergence on these norms and principles has gathered force throughout the hemisphere. A series of OAS documents and agreements culminated in the commitment by hemisphere Chiefs of State at the December 1994 Summit of the Americas to advance democracy, human rights, and the rule of law throughout the region. So far, however, the gap between the rhetoric and multilateral efforts to achieve the goals of the Summit remains disturbingly large.

November 1, 1995: PREAL Working Paper No. 1: Preschool Education in Latin America: State of the Practice (PDF)
By Robert G. Myers
This paper examines the scientific and social arguments in support of expanding early education and development activities, the advantages and disadvantages of existing programs, some of the main problems that will have to be resolved as the field grows, and some suggestions for action. Also available in Portuguese and Spanish.

November 1, 1995: La educación preescolar en América Latina: El estado de la práctica (PDF)
By Robert G. Myers
This paper examines the scientific and social arguments in support of expanding early education and development activities, the advantages and disadvantages of existing programs, some of the main problems that will have to be resolved as the field grows, and some suggestions for action. Also available in English and Portuguese

November 1, 1995: EDUCAÇÃO PRÉ-ESCOLAR NA AMÉRICA LATINA: O Atual "Estado da Prática" (PDF)
By Robert G. Myers
This paper examines the scientific and social arguments in support of expanding early education and development activities, the advantages and disadvantages of existing programs, some of the main problems that will have to be resolved as the field grows, and some suggestions for action. Also available in English and Spanish.

September 1, 1995: Cuba in the Americas: Breaking the Policy Deadlock (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue Task Force on Cuba
The prospects for political and economic change in Cuba are today greater than at any time since President Fidel Castro consolidated power in 1959. Less progress toward reform has occurred than Cuban officials claim and certainly less than we would like, but the changes are more significant than any that have preceded them and will be difficult to reverse.

May 1, 1995: The Helms and Burton Bills on Cuba: An Early Assessment (PDF)
By Jorge I. Domínguez
United States policy toward Cuba remains controversial, and is likely to become more so with the new legislation - the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act - introduced by Hesse Helms in the Senate and Dan Burton in the House. This legislation seeks to increase U.S. sanctions against the island and countries doing business with it and to specify U.S. policy toward a post-Castro Cuba.

March 1, 1995: The New Governments of Brazil and Mexico: What Lies Ahead? (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
Reversals of fortune - between Brazil and Mexico - was the central theme of the conference. The optimism-pessimism juxtaposition was noted by many participants.

October 7, 1994: Communiqué to the Presidents of the Americas (PDF)
By The Roundtable of Western Hemisphere Women Leaders
We are committed to the objectives of making democracy work and advancing equitable development in the Americas. This means first, recognizing the contributions women make to economic growth and family welfare, and second, promoting the full and equal participation of women in all aspects and at all levels of politics, the economy and society, without which no nation can be truly democratic or achieve its economic potential.

October 1, 1994: Las Americas en 1994: Tiempo de Liderazgo (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
El pasado Diciembre, después de la aprobación en el Congreso del Tratado Libre Comercio de Norteamérica (TLC), el Vice Presidente Al Gore, durante una cisita a México, anunció que los Estados Unidos pleaban convocar un encuentro de los líderes del hemisferio elegidos democráticamente.

September 1, 1994: Trade Issues in the Western Hemisphere (PDF)
By Sidney Weintraub
Trade policy is the priority concern of most Latin American governments as the December Summit of the Americas approaches. Hemispheric relations in the future may be largely defined by the quality of commercial relations.

August 1, 1994: Challenges for the Future of Trade in the Western Hemisphere (PDF)
By Sidney Weintraub
Trade policy throughout the Western Hemisphere is in a state of flux, more so now than at any other time int he postwar period. Among policy officials in Latin America, the Caribbean, and North America, there is general agreement on many trade policy issues but uncertainty about others.

June 1, 1994: State Policies toward Indigenous Poeples in Latin America: Issues and Alternatives (PDF)
By Donna Lee Van Cott
During the past two decades, indigenous peoples in the Western Hemisphere have organized themselves into sophisticated political networks and are now struggling to expand their participation in governmental decision-making processes. From the point of view of the Latin American nation-state, these indigenous movements present a further challenge to the difficult tasks of consolidating democracy, reactivating economic growth, and rebuilding deteriorated bureaucracies. From the point of view of indigenous communities, this activism is their only chance to survive as culturally distinct peoples.

June 1, 1994: A Multilateral Dialogue with Peru (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
In August 1993, the Inter-American Dialogue organized, with the participation of the Peruvian Center for International Studies (CEPEI), a meeting to discuss the difficult challenges facing Peru in the 1990s: reviving an economy that had virtually collapsed; rebuilding democratic institutions and restoring the rule of law; coping with one of the world's most virulent terrorist movements; confronting mass poverty and inequality; and reestablishing ties to the international community.

May 1, 1994: Advancing Democracy and Human Rights In the Americas: What Role for the OAS? (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
Like the European internationalists of the late 1920s, the 50 diplomats, academics and activists from the Western Hemisphere who gathered in Washington on December 2 and 3, 1993, under the auspices of the Inter-American Dialogue, had a lot to celebrate.

May 1, 1993: Toward an Era of Hemispheric Cooperation (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue and the Brookings Institution
In the thirty years since President Kennedy announced the Alliance for Progress, no U.S. initiative has generated more interest and excitement in Latin America than President Bush's June 1990 proposal for a Western Hemisphere Free Trade system that would eliminate barriers to commerce among all the countries of the world.

December 31, 1992: 1992 Annual Report (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
In 1992, the Inter-American Dialogue celebrated its tenth anniversary as an organization committed to fashioning cooperative approaches to problems in Western Hemisphere relations. We are proud of the contributions that the Dialogue made in its early years to the struggle for peace in Central America, the search for solutions to the debt crisis, and the advancement of democracy and human rights.

October 1, 1992: Cuba en las Américas: Desafíos Recíprocos (PDF)
By Grupo de Trabajo sobre Cuba del Diálogo Interamericano
Con el fin de la Guerra Fría, el aislamiento de Cuba de la comunidad interamericana es anacrónico, innecesario, perjudicial, y posiblemente peligroso. Nuestras recomendaciones, que dirigimos a los gobiernos de Cuba, América Latina y el Caribe, Canadá, y Estados Unidos, promueven un futuro en el cual Caribe se comprometa fuera del hemisferio.

October 1, 1992: Cuba in the Americas: Reciprocal Challenges (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
With the Cold War's end, Cuba's isolations from the inter-American community is anachronistic. It is also unnecessary, damaging and, perhaps, dangerous. Our recommendations-to the governments of Cuba, Latina America and the Caribbean, Canada, and the United States-are aimed at building a future in which Cuba is committed to democratic practices and enjoys normal relations in the hemisphere and beyond.

September 18, 1992: The State of Latin American Finance (PDF)
By Pedro Aspe, Carlos Boloña, Ricardo Hausmann, and Alejandro Foxley
Pedro Aspe, Mexico's Secretary of Finance and Public Credit, Carlos Boloña, Peru's Minister of Economy and Finance, and Ricardo Hausmann, Venezuela's Minister of State, shared with us their plans and prospects for guiding their countries through this time of transition in Latin America. Key themes of all the discussions were financial stabilization, market liberalization, debt reduction, and insertion into the global economy. They also commented on the evolving political climate in their respective countries, and on the complex interplay between financial and political variables.

June 24, 1992: The First Summit of Western Hemisphere Ministers of Finance (PDF)
By Richard Feinberg, Pedro Aspe Armella, and Alejandro Foxley Rioseco
A little noted but potentially important step toward hemispheric economic coordination took place in Washington last week. First, at a time of growing doubt, the US and Latin America reaffirmed their mutual commitment to forging closer economic ties. Second, the meeting gave new standing to broadly multilateral approaches to inter-American economic cooperation. Third, and perhaps most significant, the assembled finance ministers emphasized that, unless Latin America's deep social problems were effectively addressed, the region's drive toward market reforms, open trade, and sustained economic growth would almost surely falter.

April 1, 1992: Convergencia y Comunidad: Las Américas en 1993 (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
No recordamos ninguna época en que las oportunidades para un cooperación constructiva y duradera entre las naciones del hemisferio occidental, así como los beneficios que podrían obtenerse de dicha cooperación, hayan sido mayores.

April 1, 1992: Convergence and Community: The Americas in 1993 (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
We cannot recall a time when the opportunities for constructive and sustained cooperation among Western Hemisphere nations have been greater - or when the potential payoffs from such cooperation have been larger.

September 16, 1991: Western Hemisphere Free Trade: Issues and Prospects (PDF)
By Peter Hakim and Nora Lustig
Few U.S. initiatives have generated as much excitement in Latin America as President Bush's call, in June 1990, for a Western Hemisphere Free Trade Area.

May 1, 1991: Latin American Democracy in the 1990s: The Challenges Ahead (PDF)
By Peter Hakim and Abrahan F. Lowenthal
The turn toward democracy in the Americas has been widely applauded in both the United States and Latin America. The Western Hemisphere, it is often said, is on the verge of becoming fully democratic for the first time it its history - with only Castro's Cuba now standing in the way.

January 1, 1988: Las Américas en 1988: Momento de Decisiones (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
1988 es un año de expectativas y definiciones a través de las Américas, en el norte y en el sur. Una nueva administración se hará cargo a comienzos del próximo año en Washington.

January 1, 1988: The Americas in 1988: A Time for Choices (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
1988 is a year of fateful anticipation throughout the Americas, North and South. Not only are leaders changing, but the agenda of iner-American relations is also in a flux. The major problems of the 1980s are still with us, but their nature is shifting, and new issues are emerging.

May 1, 1986: Facing up to Latin America's Crisis of Debt and Growth (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
The idea that Latin America's debt crisis has passed is a dangerous delusion. With a few exceptions, Latin American nations are less able to manage their debt today than they were when the financial crisis first erupted in 1982.

May 1, 1986: Rebuilding Cooperation in the Americas (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
This report has one central message: It is time to rebuild inter-American cooperation. The Americas in 1986 are troubled. Economic, political, and social problems are mounting. The nations of Latin America and the Caribbean must work closely with the United States and Canada to face these issues.

May 1, 1986: Para Reconstruir la Cooperación en las Americas (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
Este informe tiene un mensaje central: es hora de recontruir la cooperación inter-americana. Las Américas en 1986 están en dificultades. Los problemas económicos y sociales se están agravando. Las naciones de America Latina y el caribe deben trabajar conjuntamente con los Estados Unidos y el Canadá para afrontar estas cuestiones.

May 1, 1986: Pela Reconstrução da Cooperação nas Amèricas (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
Este relatório tem uma mensagem central: é necessário reconstruir a cooperação interamericana. Nese ano de 1986 as Américas estão conturbadas. Aumentam os seus problemas sociais e econômicos. É preciso que os países latinoamericanos e do Caribe trabalhem em conjunto com os Estados Unidos e o Canadá para entrentarem estes problemas.

May 1, 1984: Las Americas en 1984: Año de Decisiones (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
En 1983 las economías de America Latina experimentaron el pero de los últimos cincuenta anos. El producto interno bruto de la región disminuyo 3.3 por ciento y los ingresos percápita se hallan actualmente al nivel de 1976. Los conflictos de la región se han intensificado abruptamente y las victimas han aumentado en forma pronunciada. Es cada vez mayor el peligro de una guerra regional y de una mayor intervención externa. Tememos que pueda estallar una conflagración mas amplia si no se invierte rápidamente la intensificación de la violencia.

April 1, 1983: The Americas at a Crossroads (PDF)
By The Inter-American Dialogue
The Americas are at a crossroads, at a juncture of unusual danger and of special opportunity.